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Drill 15 1/4" Holes Randomly in Tree
3/4" Wide 3/4
Figure 21.22 decoration.
The wood pieces for the Christmas
TABLE 21.8 NOTE
XMAS NOTE TABLE LABEL FREQUENCY, HZ COMMENTS
B C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C C# D D# E Pause
lnB nC nCS nD nDS nE nF nFS nG nGS nA nAS nB hnC hnCS hnD hnDS hnE nP
494 523 554 587 622 659 699 740 784 831 880 923 988 1047 1109 1175 1245 1319 N/A
B below middle C Middle C
Octave above middle C
Pause a sixteenth beat
When specifying the time for the note, the delay is given in 16 beats. To specify a tune, the notes are speci ed along with the number of sixteenth beats. For example, the rst line of Oh Christmas Tree, which is Oh Christ-mas tree, Christ-mas tree, how lovely are . . . 1/8D 3/16G 1/16G 1/8A 3/16B 1/16B 3/8B 1/8B 1/8A 1/4C . . . is written out as
nD,2,nG,3,nG,1,nG,6,nA,2,nB,3,nB,1,nB,6,nB,2,nA,2,nB,2,hnC,4 . . .
The application is timed for 72 beats per minute, which allows me to do a pretty good rendition of O Christmas Tree. Other songs can be programmed in very easily; to do this, I recommend buying a cheap beginners piano book with Christmas carols (or other songs) and transcribing the notes. This may be surprising, but the most dif cult aspect of this application for me was to nd and transcribe a version of O Christmas Tree that had notes that fell in the proper range for the application. For driving the LEDs seemingly randomly, the pseudorandom formula
Data = (data << 1) + (data.15 ^ data.12)
shifts the current value up by 1 bit and then lls in the least signi cant bit with the most signi cant bit and another XORed together. This seems unbelievably simple (and it is), but it does a very good job of randomizing the data as a very simple linear feedback shift register. The two 74LS374s are wired as synchronous serial shift registers. I use this format for a variety of different applications to shift data serially out to a parallel I/O. To shift the data out, notice that I perform a shift on the data with the carry up from the lower byte being used as the LSB of the upper (the lower bytes LSB is the pseudorandom value discussed earlier). The xmax040.asm application code is in the code/Xmas folder. If you decide to put in your own tune, then change the name of the le so that you don t overwrite the original application.
IRTank: TV IR REMOTE-CONTROL ROBOT
In this chapter I present two different robot features that can be controlled by a PIC. This section will show you how to use the PIC microcontroller with a TV remote control to send commands to a tracked vehicle. At the end of this chapter I ll go through a programmable servo controller. The genesis of this project was an article in Electronics Now. In the preceding project I made the observation that hobbyist magazines always have Christmas decorations in their November December issues. On the other hand, you ll notice a number of different robot designs throughout the year. The magazine project presented a simple
The completed IR-controlled tank.
differentially driven robot that could be controlled by a TV remote control. After looking through the article, I decided to build my own robot (Fig. 21.23) because there were a few things that I could improve on. The project in the article used a single infrared (IR) receiver (typically used with TV remote controls) to control the robot. Two motors (for the robot s left and right sides) were switched on and off by an H bridge motor control made out of discrete transistors. The magazine robot used a PIC 16C5x for control. I felt that by using a mid-range part, I would have the advantage of interrupts to handle the incoming commands (which I ll refer to as data packets). Most (if not all) IR TV remotes use a space-width encoding scheme in which the data bits are embedded in the packet by varying the lengths of certain data levels. This can be seen in Fig. 21.24 from a theoretical perspective and from the practical (oscilloscope output of a TV remote control IR receiver) in Fig. 21.25. The normal signal coming from an IR receiver circuit is high when nothing is coming (line idle) and then goes low with a leader signal to indicate that data is coming in. The data consists of a bit Synch, whose value, when complete, is transmitted as the
Figure 21.24 The output of a TV remote-control receiver consists of a number of pulses that are separated by different-length spaces that are used to encode data.