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movlw Loop: addlw btfsc goto 7 0 - 1 STATUS, Z Loop
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An assembler performs the following operations. First, it determines the program counter address for the rst assembler instruction that is encountered (movlw 7). Next, it reads through the rst parameter of the assembler instruction and if it is a label, it marks it for later translation into its numeric value. Along with the instruction s code, it also identi es the expected parameters. If the label is not in the instruction table, the assembler assumes the string is an address label and stores the value in an address label. This operation is known as a pass and processes the entire source le before going on. If the example code above started at address 0x0123, the rst pass of the assembler would produce the information listed in Table 3.2. Once this pass is complete, a second pass is executed in which the parameter values for each instruction are evaluated and added to the instruction s numeric. When the
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TOOLS OVERVIEW
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TABLE 3.2 CODE
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MPASM FIRST PASS ASSEMBLY OF A BLOCK OF CODE ADDRESS NUMERIC EXPECTED PARAMETERS LABEL VALUE
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movlw 7 Loop: addlw 0 1 btfsc STATUS, Z goto Loop
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0x123
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0x3000
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8-bit value Loop = 124
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0x124 0x125 0x126
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0x3E00 0x1C00 0x2800
8-bit value Register, Bit# 11-bit value
parameters are evaluated, any labels that are found are checked against a le register/ address label table. The second pass produces complete instruction values as shown in Table 3.3. In the parameter evaluation, MPASM produces a 32-bit value that is used from the least signi cant bits upwards according to the instruction format. This is done by what I call the assembler calculator, which is discussed in detail in Chap. 10 Macro Development. In the third line (addlw 0-1), the 32-bit value for negative one (-1) is:
0x0FFFFFFFF
even though the least signi cant 8 bits are used with the instruction. Note that when the instruction is rst decoded, the parameter values are left zeroed. When the parameters are evaluated, the correct values can be simply added to the instruction numeric in the second pass to create a correct instruction for the PIC microcontroller s processor. The MPASM assembler works almost identically to the description above but with a few differences. The rst is the inclusion of a macro processor, which inserts macros into the source code. The MPASM assembler also accesses one of four instruction types to numeric and parameter type tables based on the type of PIC microcontroller the source is written for. Lastly, MPASM imbeds included les into the source code before the passes begin. Once these operations are complete, the two-pass assembler can be invoked
TABLE 3.3 CODE
RESULTS AFTER SECOND PASS OF THE ASSEMBLER ADDRESS NUMERIC
movlw 7 Loop: addlw 0 1 btfsc STATUS, Z goto Loop
0x123
0x3007
0x124 0x125 0x126
0x3EFF 0x1D03 0x2924
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
to convert the resulting source into instruction bit pattern for the PIC microcontroller s processor. This initial step and operations are also very common for many assemblers. Errors in the MPASM assembler can be agged in one of three categories: error, warning, or message. Errors indicate that there are signi cant problems with the source code that will have to be corrected before the application can be programmed into a PIC microcontroller. Warnings indicate that the code does not follow the Microchip recommended format and may not work as you expect. Messages are used to indicate that something looks funny and while the code will probably run, you should make sure you understand what the problem is. As I will say throughout this book, you should never attempt to program a PIC microcontroller and expect it to work properly if there are any errors, warnings, or messages. In some of the examples here, I will show what kind of messages you can get and then show what happens when the assembler messages are ignored. The errors, warnings, and messages are well thought out and if something comes up, you should heed them. Chances are, they will save you from having to debug a problem on the PIC microcontroller. This also goes for suppressing messages. In the rst edition, I noted that leaving off the , f when an operations destination is put back into the source register could be done with only a message being displayed. In the three years since writing that book, I ve discovered cases where I have had problems with an application because I left off the , w parameter from the instruction. Now I very rarely suppress any messages or warnings and only program a PIC microcontroller if the application assembles cleanly (without any errors, warnings, or messages). The only time I do suppress a message or warning is when I expect it. In these cases, I suppress the message or warning generation, place the instruction, and then enable the message or warning generation. This way, I acknowledge the expected message or warning and am noti ed if it comes up again elsewhere (and unexpectedly) in the application source code.
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