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before trying it out in hardware and driving out to a TV. The biggest issue I had was determining the location of the box so that it would be easily seen on the TV. Next, I started work on Video2.asm, which set up an inverted U-shaped playing eld on the TV s display along with a PIC microcontroller-generated paddle. The position of this paddle is determined by the voltage input from the 10-k potentiometer into the PIC microcontroller s ADC. The debug of this program was considerably more challenging than that for Video1. The initial problem I had was with displaying the playing eld. This involved creating two routines. The rst was used for generating the top line of the display. The second was to create the two vertical bars of the eld. While not terribly hard to do, there was a fair amount of work involved in determining values that would result in the playing eld properly displayed on my TV s screen. Next, I did the paddle s position. To read and process the paddle s position, I initiated the PIC microcontroller s ADC in the rst half line of the vertical blanking interval. In the second half line I then read out the ADC and then converted the value read into a value that could be displayed. To do this, I had to know how wide the eld was. This is why I did the playing eld rst. The playing eld size that I settled on was 131 instruction cycles wide (32.75 s) with 8-instruction-cycle-wide (2 s) bars on each side. I wanted to have a bar that was about one-sixth the eld wide, so I decided to make it 20 instruction cycles wide. This left 111 instruction cycles for moving the bar. Because I wanted to use the code
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decfsz goto nop PaddleCount, f $ - 1
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to provide a consistent 3-instruction-cycle delay to move the paddle, this gave me a granularity of 37 positions for the paddle on the eld. To scale the 8-bit output of the ADC to the 0 to 37 range of the paddle, I multiplied the 8-bit output by 37 and used the top byte for the paddle position. This value then was multiplied by three and then used to locate the paddle on the screen. Creating the software to move the paddle accurately was a signi cant challenge for me (and I still don t feel that I have it 100 percent right). I found that there were ve situations in which I had to be able to handle the paddle so as to appear to move linearly to the potentiometer input. These cases were
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Against the left wall One position from the left wall Two or more positions from the left wall and two or more positions from the right wall One position from the right wall Against the right wall
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I found that each case had to be accurately timed, and this ended up taking most of an evening for me to do.
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The nal code, which is shown in the photograph at the start of this section, is video3.asm. This code incorporates a bouncing ball on the display. The ball moves diagonally until it hits a boundary of the playing eld. The obvious original intention of this application was to create a Breakout type of game. The ball itself is three lines by three instruction cycles in size. Each time a new frame (two elds) is displayed, the position of the ball is updated by the size of the ball. There is a 16-bit variable called BallPos that is used to keep track of the x and y position of the ball on the screen, as well as the x and y direction in which the ball is moving. Each time the ball hits a playing eld wall, the direction changes. The initial position and direction of the ball are determined by the TMR0 value. To be able to handle the ball s position, I separated each set of three lines of the playing eld. The ball itself, if it is within these lines when the PIC microcontroller generates them, is displayed on the line. Getting the timing correct for the ball was a daunting task that took me two evenings to do. After getting each case (the same as the paddle earlier plus the case of no ball) to execute in 63.5 s (or 254 instruction cycles), the movement of the ball seemed to be appropriate. Unfortunately, in creating the multiple lines for the ball to be displayed, I used up an awful lot of space. This application uses 899 of the 1,024 instructions available in the PIC microcontroller and does not leave enough space for collision detection between the ball and the paddle or the ball and other features on the screen. To follow through and create a game from this application, I would want to use a 2,048-instruction PIC microcontroller such as the PIC16C712 instead of the 1,024-instruction PIC16C711 that I did use. In the work that was done for this project, I was able to reach a number of conclusions. The rst is that the PIC microcontroller is not well suited for generating video signals. Electrically, this was not a huge issue, and gray voltage levels could be added to the voltage divider output quite easily. The signi cant problems were in the software used by the project. While the PIC microcontroller is running at a reasonably fast speed (16 MHz), this translated to being able to place a feature on the display arbitrarily with a best-case accuracy of three instruction cycles, or 750 ns. Since 53.3 s are available in each line for placing features, this gave a resolution of only 71 positions on each line. This positioning accuracy is even further decreased when the playing eld width of 131 instruction cycles is available, with the ball being the smallest feature displayable on the screen with up to 43 different positions. Using a PIC18 microcontroller running at 40 MHz would improve the granularity of the ball position to about 107 different positions for each line of the playing eld. Ideally, I would like to see something approaching 256 different positions for the display to be as accurate as possible. With different cases, timing the application is a major headache and a dif cult piece of work. This was especially true when I was calculating the ball s position with two playing eld borders to also display at the same time. Ideally, a PIC microcontroller video generator application would have only one feature to put on any line at a given time.
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