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MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRONIC REFERENCE INFORMATION
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Transistor Operation: P N P
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Removed Holes Lower N Potential and Allows Current to Flow from the Collector Collector
Current Output = hFE or Beta times the Base Current
Figure D.12 PNP transistor schematic symbol, example application, and physical device.
cause the electrical characteristics in the substrate below the gate (the conducting region in Fig. D.13) to mimic those of N-doped silicon. The size of the conducting region can be controlled by the amount of voltage applied to the gate. For digital applications, a set amount of voltage is applied constantly, making the N-channel behave like an on/off switch. MOSFETs usually are de ned by the resistance between the drain and the source when the transistor is on or conducting. For an N-channel device, this resistance normally is measured in fractions of an ohm. N-channel MOSFET transistors have a complementary device, the P-channel MOSFET. These transistors normally conduct when a zero voltage is applied to them because a conducting tub of N-doped silicon has been placed under the gate, as I ve shown in Fig. D.14. When a positive voltage is applied to the gate, the N-doped silicon changes its electrical characteristics to P-doped silicon and stops conducting.
Digital Inverter Circuit:
Input
Drain
Symbol: Or:
Gate Gate
Source Drain Source
Output
Transistor Operation: Gate Source Drain N N Conducting Region P Type Substrate
Transistor Switch is Closed when a Positive Voltage is Applied to Gate Transistor Switch is. Open when a Zero or Negative Voltage is Applied to the Gate
Figure D.13 N-channel MOSFET information with schematic symbols.
APPENDIX D
Drain
Symbol: Or:
Gate Gate
Source Drain Source
CMOS Inverter Circuit:
Input Output
Transistor Operation: Gate Source P Drain P
Transistor Switch is Closed when a Zero or Negative Voltage is Applied to Gate .Transistor Switch is Open when a Positive Voltage is Applied to the Gate
N Type Tub Depletion Region Conducting Region P Type Substrate
Figure D.14
P-channel MOSFET information.
When the depletion region grows to the point where the entire N-doped silicon behaves like P-doped silicon underneath the gate, the transistor is no longer conducting and is turned off. Varying the amount of voltage applied to the gate can control this pinching off of the N-channel tub. The P-channel MOSFET has an on resistance that at several ohms or more is much higher than that of the N-channel MOSFET, and it can be dif cult to match the two devices for analog applications. Where P-channel MOSFETs have found a niche is in working with N-channel MOSFETs in CMOS (complementary metal oxide silicon) logic. As I ve shown in Fig. D.14, a P-channel MOSFET can be combined with an N-channel MOSFET to produce an inverter and not require the current-limiting resistor of the NMOS inverter. When you see the symbols for MOSFET transistors, it is easy to forget which is which. Always remember that the N-channel device has the arrow going in (i.e., iN ). This is not true for NPN transistors, where the arrow indicates current output. In CMOS circuits, the only real opportunity for current ow is when the gates are switching, and stored charges are passed through the transistors. This accounts for the phenomenally low current (and power) requirements of CMOS circuits and why the current requirement goes up when the clock frequencies go up. As number of switch transitions per second increases, the amount of charge moved within the chips goes up proportionally. This charge movement averages out to a current ow.
Test Equipment
As you gain pro ciency in working with electronics in general and the PIC microcontroller speci cally, you will nd the following tools to be useful in validating and debugging your applications. While these tools may seem speci c to debugging hardware, they can be very useful when you have an application software problem that you are trying to debug.
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRONIC REFERENCE INFORMATION
DIGITAL MULTIMETERS
Digital multimeters (DMMs) are invaluable tools for checking voltage (and logic levels) in an application, as well as for measuring the current and the values of some components. Inexpensive DMMs can be bought for as little as $20 (USD). The output of a DMM is a three- or four-digit numerical display. In many devices, the measurement is selected via a switch on the DMM, and the display s decimal point moves over. If the value is too large for the display, something like an I in the left most digit will be displayed with the other digits blanked out. Some DMMs have up to six digits, but I must stress that as you work with the DMMs for your own PIC microcontroller or digital electronics projects, never use more than three digits (and ideally not more than two). The extra accuracy is not needed and adds a lot to the cost of the instrument. Each digit represents a power of 10. For a three-digit display, the value is supposedly accurate to one part in a thousand. Greater than one part per thousand accuracy is required only very rarely in very specialized cases, and when this level of accuracy is required, then precision power supplies, crystals, and components would be used alone with a specially calibrated DMM. It may be interesting to see the differences between devices at ten-millionths of a volt, but this accuracy is not practical for any PIC microcontroller applications that I can think of. DMMs are not fast response devices. You may nd that it can take as long as 10 seconds before the display stabilizes on a dc voltage value. The long time needed to stabilize the output means that the DMM is not capable of measuring changing signals unless the signal changes once every few seconds. Along with the ability to measure current, voltage, and resistance, DMMs are available with the following features and capabilities: Perform autoranging while measuring a parameter Measure capacitance Measure temperature Measure a bipolar transistor s beta Perform diode checks. Measure frequency These features are nice to have but not critical for the projects in this book or most beginning applications.
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