integrate barcode scanner in asp.net THE FUNCTION OF THE OFFSETS ON EACH LINE OF A HEX FILE in Software

Drawing QR Code 2d barcode in Software THE FUNCTION OF THE OFFSETS ON EACH LINE OF A HEX FILE

TABLE 4.1
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THE FUNCTION OF THE OFFSETS ON EACH LINE OF A HEX FILE
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OFFSET FROM START OF LINE
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FUNCTION
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0 1 2
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Always : and used to indicate the start of a new line. Two times the number of 2-byte instructions on the line in hexadecimal with most signi cant digit rst. There can be up to eight instructions (for a value of 16 or 10 hexadecimal). Two times the starting address for the instructions on the line. The address has the most signi cant digit rst and the least signi cant digit last. The line type (00 = data, 01 = end). The rst instruction to be programmed into the PIC microcontroller. The data format is loaded with the rst 2 bytes representing the 2 least signi cant nybbles of the instruction and the next 2 bytes being the 2 most signi cant nybbles representing the most signi cant nybbles. Additional instructions on the line. The checksum of the contents of the line.
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14 17, . . . Last 2
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HEX FILE FORMAT
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by 4 bytes which will translate to 2 bytes (16 bits) of actual data with each pair of bytes used to make up a byte of data or address. The next 4 bytes (characters) indicate twice the starting address of the data on the line. If there was a break in the code, say an instruction at address 0 and a break until address 4, the hex le would look something like:
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:020000000728CF :0800080029150B1109008316F4
After each instruction is loaded into the PIC microcontroller s program memory, an internal counter is incremented. When a line is nished, this counter is usually at the correct value for the next line, but if it is not, it is incremented until it is the same as the line s address. This means that if there are gaps in the application, the addresses will be left unprogrammed. Note that the second line ends at address 8 boundary (the next line of data will start at address 0x008, the following one at 0x010, and so on). This is not necessary, but a convention used by the MPASM assembler. The next 2 bytes specify the line type. Normally, this is 00, indicating that the line is data, but when it is 01, it indicates that the line is the end of the le. The instruction data bytes follow the data type bytes. Each 4 bytes represents the instruction that is to be loaded into the PIC microcontroller s program memory. Depending on the PIC microcontroller architecture used, 12 or 14 bytes are required for the instruction, but 16 bits will always be used to store the instruction, with the top 4 or 2 bits, respectively, being zeros. Unlike the address bytes, the instruction bytes are saved in Intel format, which means the rst 2 bytes are the least signi cant bytes of the instruction. The instruction bytes are not multiplied by two. The last 2 bytes of each line of the hex le are the checksum of the line. This value is used to con rm the contents of the line and ensure that when all bytes of the line are summed the least signi cant 8 bits are equal to 0x000. This value is calculated by taking the least signi cant 8 bits of the sum of the line and subtracting it from 0x0100. Using the second line of the example hex le above:
:0A0010000728A10B07288603072824
The sum of all the bytes (except for the checksum bytes is):
0A 00 10 00 07 28 A1 0B 07 28
PROGRAMMING PIC MICROCONTROLLERS
86 03 07 + 28 -------1DC
The least signi cant 8 bits (0x0DC) are taken away from 0x0100 to get the checksum:
0x0100 - 0x00DC -------0x0024
This calculated checksum value of 0x024 is the same as the last 2 bytes of the original line. While I ve called the 2 checksum bytes the end of each line in the hex le, each line in the le is actually terminated by an ASCII carriage return (0x0100) and line feed (0x0100) combination. This is important for homegrown programmers: because of the different way les can be read, the line feed character may or may not be present. This caused me quite a few problems with the YAP programmer, as I will detail later in the chapter.
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