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stack1[25] stack2[25] pulsewidth pot : "LCDRoutines4" : "Utilities"
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'space for motor 'space for LCD ' ' 'for the LCD methods 'for general methods (continued)
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Variable PWM Signal Based on a Potentiometer Reading (continued)
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PUB Go cognew(RunMotor(7),@Stack1) cognew(LCD_manager,@stack2) repeat Pot:=UTIL.read3202_0
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'read the pot at MCP3202
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PUB RunMotor(Pin)|Cycle_time,period 'method to toggle the output dira[7]~~ 'gain access to these three amplifier lines dira[19..20]~ 'potentiometer location ctra[30..26]:=%00100 'Set this cog's "A Counter" to run PWM ctra[5..0]:=Pin 'Set the "A pin" of this cog to Pin frqa:=1 'Set this counter's frqa value to 1 PulseWidth:=50 'Start with position=50 Cycle_time:=clkfreq/1000 'Set the time for the pulse width to 10 ms period:=cnt 'Store the current value of the counter repeat 'power PWM routine. phsa:=-(pot*244/100) 'Send a high pulse for PulseWidth counts period:=period+Cycle_time 'Calculate cycle time waitcnt(period) 'Wait for the cycle time to complete PRI LCD_manager LCD.INITIALIZE_LCD 'initialize the LCD repeat 'LCD loop LCD.POSITION (1,1) 'Go to 1st line 1st space LCD.PRINT(STRING("Pot=" )) 'Potentiometer position ID LCD.PRINT_DEC(pot) 'print the pot reading LCD.SPACE(5) 'erase over old data
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Run the program and turn the potentiometer end to end. You should see a fixed cycle time in which the high portion of the wave goes from 0% to 100%.
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The eighT Cogs
The eight cogs are identical in every detail. Therefore, now that we have a feel for what one cog can do, we need a general overview of the eight-cog environment. This chapter considers the eight cogs as a whole, along with their ancillary control hardware. You should be completely comfortable with the previous chapter before you start this chapter. You need to understand what the capabilities of one cog are to understand them altogether.
The Cogs
Each of the 32-bit processors in the Propeller chip is called a cog. The Propeller chip has eight of these cogs on it. The eight cogs can be run simultaneously, and each of them can perform one or more tasks, depending on how the tasks are designed and programmed. A cog can be programmed to perform more than one task if the tasks can be performed in the time available and do not interfere with one another. Because the Propeller system does not support the use of interrupts, anything that would have needed an interrupt in the usual single-processor environment needs to be assigned to its own cog in the parallel Propeller environment. There is no easy way to avoid this requirement, and because you have eight cogs at your disposal, there is usually no need to. Each of the cogs is a 32-bit logic engine with a sophisticated instruction set. Between them, the eight processors have access to 32KB of hub RAM. Each of these cogs can access this memory, one at a time, in a round-robin fashion. The access to the memory is synchronized by the system clock and is controlled by a hardware device called the system hub. Each cog gets access to the shared memory for the same amount of time. All the cogs can access the 32 input/output lines simultaneously. The timing constraints of how these interactions take place and what the latency is (meaning the worst-case delay) are described in the owner s manual and should not be a concern at
The eighT Cogs
this stage of the learning process. Timing critical tasks is beyond what we need to know as beginners. There is no user-accessible stack (for subroutine return addresses, and such) either common or specific to a cog, and there is no interrupt function anywhere within the entire system. Neither of these functions is needed because having eight cogs running in parallel essentially eliminates the need for them. By far the greatest shortcoming of the system is the lack of large amounts of memory. Not having a large amount of memory eliminates the possibility of undertaking large number-crunching operations. The chip is not designed for large number-crunching operations, but as a general-purpose controller it has more than adequate memory. Serial memory can be added to the system, but serial memory is not as fast as RAM and has read/write issues related to accessing it regarding the speed and rules of the operation. If a serial one-wire memory has to be accessed repeatedly, a lot of time is used up. Graphics applications that use large displays or run simulations also need large amounts of memory and therefore have the same problems. At our level of interest, the memory is not a concern. We have more than enough. None of the programs in this book come close to needing but a small part of the memory at our disposal.
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