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As a general rule, a DC motor in a servo control situation needs to be running (under load) at well below 50% of the power needed to perform the task at hand. The other 50% or so of the power is reserved for the power needed for sudden load changes, to accelerate, and to transition between moves quickly. There will be cases when even more power is needed for short periods. Keep in mind that a DC motor can provide a lot more than its rated power as the supply voltage is increased. Such overloads should be limited to short periods to prevent internal overheating. The limiting condition for a DC motor is the heat that builds up in the motor windings and the amperage the brushes can transmit to the commutator. If the motor can be kept cool or if the motor materials will handle higher temperatures. DC motors can be pushed well beyond published ratings, especially for short periods of time. We have to monitor the temperature of the windings to make sure things don t get out of hand. Keep in mind that a little overheating over a long period of time can be just as damaging as a lot of heating in a short amount of time. The capacity of the commutator-brush current is a function of its mechanical design. If it is being exceeded, the commutator starts to pit and then the brushes fail. The top speed of the motor is limited by the back Electro Motive Force that it generates as its speed increases. When the back EMF gets high enough, the motor can no longer increase its speed. At the higher amperages that these speeds require, the ability of the brushes to transmit the necessary current to the commutator is compromised and sparking at the brushes increases. This sparking ruins the commutator and the brushes rather rapidly. For our purposes, we can consider the motor s response to the voltage applied to be linear. This means that, in general, twice the voltage will give us twice the speed. We will assume that we are working within electrical parameters that the motors can tolerate without difficulty.
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Note The output from a Transistor-Transistor Logic gate with a fan out of 10 or so will run the smallest of DC motors without amplification. All other motors need at least a small transistor to provide enough energy to run them. For serious motor control, we need an integrated system that provides all the function of an H bridge so that we can implement pulse width modulated motor speed control and motor reversal. A number of integrated circuits that do this are available from a host of vendors, both as integrated circuits and as complete small amplifiers.
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Let s take a look at three small amplifiers that we can use to control our motors. All three are inexpensive and easy to use. Other suppliers provide similar amplifiers you might find more suitable for your particular use, but this tutorial does not cover the use of any other amplifiers. However, you should not have any trouble using these similar amplifiers. Although I describe two amplifiers, I provide the circuitry for only the larger, more powerful Xavien dual amplifier. The three amplifiers shown in Figure 23-1 each provide an inexpensive way to run one or two motors, coils, or other devices at the same time. Because we need a two-axis amplifier to run the stepper motor, and if you are going to buy only one amplifier, buy one of these two amplifiers. The Solarbotics amplifier is cheaper but also handles fewer amps and you do have to assemble it (see Table 23-1). Most users will find that their amplifier of choice is the Xavien two axis amplifier, shown on the right in Figure 23-1. All these amplifiers accept CMOS or TTL level signals to control the power to the motors. Each requires a power supply that matches the power needed by the motor and the needs of the amplifier electronics. The power supply of the microcontroller and the power supply of the motor/amplifier should be kept separate under all circumstances, with only a common ground connection. If this is not done, noise from the motors will contaminate the power to the microprocessor and cause problems. Motors are very noisy as far as computer electronics are concerned and must be isolated. Motor noise comes from the motor commutators and from the rapid on and off switching of the motor coils.
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