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Motor AMplifiers for sMAll Motors
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figure 23-1 Small amplifiers suitable for running small motors
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AMplifier CoNstruCtioN Notes (for HoMeMAde AMplifiers)
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tAble 23-1
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Amplifier Solarbotics two-axis Xavien two-axis Xavien one-axis
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Although the addition of capacitors to ground from each motor terminal and across the terminals does help, this does not work as well as a well-isolated layout. Because we have a choice, we will use separate power supplies for all our experiments. Each of these amplifiers uses one or two integrated circuits as its amplifier elements, and the smaller one provides ancillary LEDs and other circuitry to allow interfacing to the signals that the microcontroller provides without an intermediate device. We can go directly from a microprocessor port to the amplifier input without any intermediate electronics. The capacities of the amplifiers are detailed in Table 23-1.
Amplifier Construction Notes (for Homemade Amplifiers)
Although you can make your own homebrew H bridge amplifier, I do not recommend that you do this other than as an interesting exercise. The amplifiers you are likely to make (a number of designs are available on the Internet) are likely to be fairly straightforward H bridges with no refinements. Unless considerable more sophisticated circuitry is added to the basic amplifier circuit, it is very easy to blow up an H bridge by turning on both transistors on any one side of the bridge at the same time. Trust me: Homebrew amplifiers are unbelievably easy to destroy. On the other hand, if we use purchased integrated circuits to build our amps, they will almost certainly have circuitry within them to prevent short circuiting, to shut down on overheating, and other useful features. The more sophisticated circuits also provide the ability to detect thermal shutdown and look at the current flow through each amplifier. Because a number of vendors are willing to sell us ready-to-use amplifiers, at very reasonable prices, there is no good reason (at this stage in our learning process) to not use these resources to run our motors. All discussions and circuits in the tutorial reflect this.
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Motor AMplifiers for sMAll Motors
Detailed Use Information for the Xavien Two-Axis Amplifier
Figure 23-2 shows the Xavien two-axis amplifier. Each of the two 18200 amp chips on this unit can handle up to 3 amps at 55 VDC. Short pulses of 6 amps will be tolerated. Figure 23-3 shows the connection schematic for the Xavien two-axis amplifier. The polarity of the power to the amplifier is critical and must be observed. No other protection is provided. A common ground to the Propeller is required. Table 23-2 shows the Xavien amplifier control lines. We will not be using the Current Sense and Thermal Flag lines on lines 4, 5, 9, and 10 in our experiments. However, we cannot ignore the Brake lines because they have to be pulled down to turn the brake off.
figure 23-2 photograph of the xavien two-axis amplifier
figure 23-3 Connection schematic for xavien two-axis amplifier
detAiled use iNforMAtioN for tHe solArbotiCs two-Axis AMplifier
tAble 23-2
xAvieN two-Axis AMplifier operAtioN tAble
pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
funCtion Motor 1 Brake. Motor 1 PWM or Enable/Run. Motor 1 Direction. Motor 1 Current Sense. (Not used in the discussions.) Motor 1 Thermal Flag. (Not used in the discussions.) Motor 2 Direction. Motor 2 Brake. Motor 2 PWM or Enable/Run. Motor 2 Thermal Flag. (Not used in the discussions.) Motor 2 Current Sense. (Not used in the discussions.)
figure 23-4 using the xavien two-axis amplifier with a motor
Therefore, pins 1, 2, and 3 can be used to control a coil or motor 1, and pins 6, 7, and 8 will control a coil or motor 2. Figure 23-4 shows one possible scheme for connecting a motor to an amplifier (note that this is not used in our experiments).
Detailed Use Information for the Solarbotics Two-Axis Amplifier
Figure 23-5 shows the two-axis Solarbotics amplifier, and Figure 23-6 shows its wiring connections.
Motor AMplifiers for sMAll Motors
figure 23-5 photograph of the two-axis Solarbotics amplifier
figure 23-6 Wiring connections for two-axis Solarbotics amp
Figure 23-7 shows an example of a circuit for controlling the Solarbotics two-axis amplifier with a Propeller chip. (Note that no programs are provided for this amplifier in this book.) Sample circuitry for using this amplifier with a microcontroller is shown in Figure 23-7. Figure 23-8 illustrates the single-axis Xavien amplifier and Figure 23-9 illustrates how one can be controlled from a Propeller chip. (Note that no programs are provided for this amplifier in this book.)
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