barcode scanner sdk vb.net figure 24-1 A typical model aircraft R/C servo that uses standard Futaba wiring in Software

Creating QR Code in Software figure 24-1 A typical model aircraft R/C servo that uses standard Futaba wiring

figure 24-1 A typical model aircraft R/C servo that uses standard Futaba wiring
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note This is a photograph of a standard TS-51 servo as provided by Tower Hobbies, Inc.
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This requirement also means that there can be a minimum worst-case delay of about 1/60th of a second whenever a command is sent to an R/C servo. For all practical purposes, a lag this long is not critical in a motor application; however, you need to have in mind that this delay does exist. It takes 1/60th of a second (worst case) for the motor to start responding to the last command sent to it. Now that we know the servos have to be reminded of their position about 60 times a second in order to maintain proper operation, we need a way to pulse the servos on a regular basis 60 times a second. Because typical program flow timing is indeterminate, the pulses cannot effectively be made a part of a standard, linear program flow and still guarantee that the servos will get pulsed as needed. A better scheme is needed. In a parallel-processing system like the Propeller, this is simple. We assign one of the cogs to take care of this task. The dedicated cog will create an overall timing cycle exactly 1/60th of a second long. Within the cycle, it will create a positive pulse between 750 and 2,250 microseconds long. The time taken by the pulse will be subtracted from the overall cycle time to ensure that the total length of the cycle is maintained at 1/60th of a second.
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The standard R/C servo is a three-wire device. The signals on the three wires are as follows for the Futaba system (other systems may vary but are similar): Wire Ground Power Color Black Red Description Ground Specified by the manufacturer (usually 5 volts will work) A TTL-level signal. This is the pulsed signal connection.
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Figure 24-2 shows how the servos are wired for the three wires they need to control them.
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figure 24-2 Wiring for running an R/C hobby servo from a Propeller
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note We are using line P23 of the Propeller, but any free line can be used to control the servo. for the record
In Futaba systems, the servo center position is defined as a pulse 1.52 ms wide
delivered 60 times a second. The pulse width range is 0.75 ms on either side of that. Other manufacturers specify values around 1.50 ms, so you should check exactly what your servos need in the way of the center positioning signal and the range. Also check to see that the wiring and voltage matches what you are going to provide with the Propeller. We are using the Futaba standard: white/red/black = signal/ power/ground. Fairly large servos that follow the R/C operating standards are made for industrial usage, although they are in most probability beyond affordability for most students and hobbyists. These servos can provide adequate power for demanding laboratory and industrial applications. In 27 we will build a servo actuated table that uses R/C signals and two servos to control the position of the table.
deterMining tHe PoSitionS of tHe Servo
When we put a servo to use, it has to move to certain very specific positions to do the work we need done. We need a way to determine the exact positions needed in our applications for each servo so that we can set the positioning parameters to the appropriate values in our programs. The program we are about to create will allow you to move a servo under computer control from a potentiometer and watch the signal values that are being sent to the servo as displayed on the LCD. The setup uses a 10K potentiometer to control the position of the servo in real time. Adjust the potentiometer as needed to get the desired position for the servo and then put the values into your program for the position specified. The code we create has to generate the pulses needed by the servo. As mentioned earlier, the pulses have to be 1/60th of a second apart and about 1,500 microseconds long. In our program, we will be assigning one cog to take care of this 1/60th of a second separation and to provide the 750 to 2,250 microseconds pulses. Because the Propeller is running at 10,000,000 Hz, each microsecond is 10 cycles long. We can specify the wait period in microseconds if we set the appropriate constants in the program. At 10 MHz, 1/60th of a second is 166,667 cycles. We have to subtract the length of the high pulse from this so that we will have a total cycle length of 166,667 cycles for the low and high part of the pulse, together. The pulses need to vary from 750 to 2,250 microseconds as the potentiometer value goes from 0 to 4,095. Here are the specifics:
At a potentiometer reading of 0, we need 7,500 cycles (10 750). At a potentiometer reading of 4,095, we need 22,500 cycles (10 2,250).
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