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Running a SteppeR MotoR: BipolaR, FouR-WiRe MotoRS
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Stepper motors are made in all sorts of shapes, sizes, and configurations and for all sorts of voltages and current requirements. About the only thing they all have in common is that they move a fraction of a revolution when the electrical signals to them are changed to the next specified sequence. Because the techniques used to run all stepper motors are similar, we will concentrate on just one type of simple stepper motor for all our experiments (to keep costs down and the programming simple). Everything you learn about this one type of motor will be easily transferred to the running of other types of stepper motors. Once you know how to set up one sequence, you can set up all sequences. In our experiments we will be using small four-wire stepper motors with only two coils inside them. These are the simplest of the stepper motors and are referred to as bipolar stepper motors. Bipolar motors have the added advantage of needing only one power supply. We will be using ones that needs about 12 volts at about 1 amp so that we can control them with our Xavien two-axis amplifier. Other stepper motors are similar in their needs, and once you know how to manage this bipolar motor, you should be able to run other motors without difficulty. The techniques you need to master to run this motor are the same as those used for all stepper motors.
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note The larger Xavien two-axis amplifier, discussed earlier in the book, will handle the electrical needs of this motor with ease without need for any extra hardware. This is one of the reasons for restricting ourselves to bipolar motors. This amplifier needs a minimum of 12 VDC for the internal motor supply circuitry to work properly. A commonly available 13-volt DC wall transformer works well for this application. The voltage does not need to be closely regulated.
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Figure 26-1 Typical small, bipolar stepper motors
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Stepper Motor Power and Speed
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Stepper motors provide a slow-speed and high-torque solution to our motion needs. Because they are moved an increment at a time, they also provide a means of keeping track of the amount of motion that takes place by counting the number of steps sent to the motor. As such, the most economical way to get both speed and distance motion for small projects needing limited power is to use stepper motors (see Figure 26-1). As the designers, it is our responsibility to select a motor that will not slip or stall under load, meaning that the motor we select has to be able to carry the load without question. If the motor slips, it will not be able to respond properly to the next power sequence change, and we will lose track of the motor position. The slip/stall is considered catastrophic and cannot be recovered from unless some sort of recover/reset software is provided.
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Details on Bipolar Motors
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We selected bipolar stepper motors because they are the simplest of the stepper motors, they are inexpensive, and they can be run with the same amplifiers we used to run the servo motors. (The larger Xavien amplifier has two amplifiers built into it. For the servos, we needed only one of the amplifiers, but for the stepper motors we will need both, one for each coil.) A schematic representation of a bipolar stepper motor is shown in Figure 26-2. Basically, a bipolar servo motor has a number of magnets and two sets of windings in it. When these windings are energized in the proper sequence, the motor armature rotates.
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Figure 26-2 Wiring schematic for a stepper motor
The speed and direction of rotation are determined by the sequence selected and the speed at which it is executed. The steps per revolution is determined by the number of magnetic poles and matching coil arrangements in the motor; it is a property of the motor and cannot be changed. Which two wires go together and to which winding are easily determined with a volt-ohm meter. We will connect one set of windings to one of the amplifiers and the other set to the other amplifier. As long as you do not get the coil wiring connections mixed up, it does not matter how you connect to the amplifiers because we can reverse the polarities in the software. Even so, taking an orderly approach to what we do has its advantages.
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