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note This is a schematic representation and does not represent actual coil placement positions.
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Running the Motor
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Once we have the motor wired to the amplifiers, we can address the business of energizing the windings in the required sequences. The sequence for movement in each direction is rigidly specified and must be followed. Here are the only three things we can do in regard to powering up a motor winding:
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We can send current through the winding in a selected direction. We can reverse the direction of the current. We can turn the current off.
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We can also modulate the current in a coil, and we can create sophisticated techniques that slowly release one coil while the other is energized. However, we will not try to create such control sequences. If you are passionate about the control of steppers, you can follow up on your own. The Propeller is powerful enough to get the job done if you care to learn its Assembly language. Spin is not fast enough. The usual sequence for energizing the two windings can be described as follows:
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1. Turn off all windings. 2. Turn on first winding (second winding off). 3. Turn on second winding; turn off first winding. 4. Reverse turn on first winding; turn off second winding. 5. Turn off second winding; reverse turn on first winding. 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5.
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How the windings are turned on and off depends on the design of the amplifiers and what needs to be done to release one winding and energize the next. Here is one operations table for the Xavien amplifier: Winding 1 ON OFF Reverse OFF Repeat Because a stepper motor can be programmed to be controlled in any number of ways, we have to select a few specific uses and develop the control for them. We will cover the following uses to determine the versatility of the motors and the ease of using them. Schemes will be developed to perform the following functions:
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Winding 2 OFF ON OFF Reverse
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Tie the speed of the motor to a potentiometer reading. Tie the distance moved to the position of a potentiometer. Move a motor back and forth with the motor speed based on a potentiometer. Move a motor back and forth with the extent of motion controlled by a potentiometer.
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These basic techniques are the foundation for almost all motion required by most applications. Combining them in various ways gives you the specific results you need. The wiring diagram for connecting a stepper motor to the Propeller chip and the potentiometer is shown in Figure 26-3.
Figure 26-3 Wiring diagram for stepper motor control from potentiometers
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Programming Considerations
The basic problem we need to solve involves sending the motor its control changes on a rigidly regular basis with a scheme that can still vary the time between changes without losing the regularity of the changes. Our target is to discover what the techniques are for doing this in a parallel-processing environment. The problem cannot be solved with the usual inline programming techniques, where the program path can vary, because the time between the execution of the various instructions cannot be guaranteed and therefore neither can the programming path between subsequent motor power changes. All such techniques lead to an irregularity between consequent signals to the motor and thus to a choppy movement of the motor itself. Because of the harmonics present in a stepper motor system, this leads to problems as we increase the motor speed (the motor soon stalls or just sits there buzzing). The usual way to solve this is to create an interrupt-based system that provides interrupts at a constant rate, where the rate of the interrupts can be controlled by the user with ease (a potentiometer in our case) and at a smooth pace. The rate at which the interrupts are generated has to meet the requirements of the lowest and highest speeds at which the motor will be expected to operate. However, we are in luck because the problem is much easier to solve in a parallel-processing environment where we do not have to contend with the difficulties associated with interrupt-based schemes. In a parallel-processing environment, we can assign one of the processors to each critical task. In our particular case, we can break the problem into the following tasks:
Read the input potentiometer. Display the results on the LCD. Manage the coil-energizing sequence in strictly timed steps as the timing is
changed. We have already developed the techniques for managing reading the potentiometer and displaying results on the LCD, each in its own dedicated cog. All we need to do is add a scheme for managing the coil-energizing sequences. Obviously, the speed at which a stepper motor operates is not continuous: It is a series of time-based steps. Because the motor moves in steps, its speed is a function of the integer stepping rate that can be executed within any given time interval. Let s use one minute as our agreed-upon time interval for now. The slowest speed for a motor under these conditions will be one step per minute. If the motor is designed for 200 steps per revolution, the lowest speed at which the motor can be commanded to run is 1/200 revolutions per minute. If the maximum steps we can send it is 400 steps per second, the maximum speed is (400/200)*60 rpm, or 120 rpm We also need to be able to stop the motor, so the zero speed condition has to be mapped within the control algorithm at the lowest reading of the potentiometer (0).
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