barcode scanner sdk vb.net Running a SteppeR MotoR: BipolaR, FouR-WiRe MotoRS in Software

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Running a SteppeR MotoR: BipolaR, FouR-WiRe MotoRS
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If the speed is going to be controlled from a potentiometer being read into 12 bits, the 0-to-4,095 reading of the potentiometer has to be mapped to the 0 to 400 steps per second that the interrupt routine will generate. If the relationship can be made linear, that would be considered desirable for most applications. Stepper motors also have some other characteristics you should know about before we proceed further:
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There is a limit to how fast they can be accelerated. If you try to change speed too
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fast, they will stutter and stall.
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There are harmonic considerations within the characteristics of the motor that make
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their operation at certain frequencies very smooth and at other frequencies quite problematic. They will also lose all torque at certain harmonic frequencies. Therefore, there are certain frequencies at which they cannot be run with any reliability. In some applications, it might not even be possible to pass through these frequencies for fear of stalling. The harmonic frequencies are affected by the load characteristics of the work being done, so the harmonic points can often be manipulated by changing the load on the motor. Both the load and the gearing of the load can be used to manipulate the harmonic points effectively. There is a limit to how fast a stepper motor can be run because of how fast we can create the interrupts needed and thus the rate at which the magnetic fields can be manipulated. Changing the magnetic fields in the coils back and forth causes some inductive heating. This is more severe at high frequencies. The resistive load of the coils does not change with speed but does contribute to the generation of heat within the motor. The torque that a stepper motor provides varies with the speed at which it is being run and is especially sensitive to collapse at critical harmonic points. Not all harmonic points behave in the same way. Oftentimes these handicaps can be overcome by changing the motor manufacturer or model or by changing the load or the gearing that the motor uses to drive its load. There are sophisticated schemes for changing the voltage and providing chopped signals to the coils to avoid some of the pitfalls as the speed is increased, but we will not consider them in this beginner s text. Microstepping techniques can be used to allow the motors to be moved to intermediate points between steps, but these techniques require very fast processing that can modulate the signals to the coils in real time, and we will not be able to do this with the controllers and Spin language we are using. Smoother operation between steps is also achieved by using these techniques, especially at very slow speeds. Besides, we are not limited to manipulating just one coil. Interactive coil management can lead to sophisticated, smoother control. The main focus of the more advanced techniques is to provide smoother operation and to avoid harmonic collapse with the speed range that the motor application requires.
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the SoFtWaRe
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We will be using the two-line LCD to give us feedback about what is going on within our system as we run the motor. Because the LCD is managed in its own cog, its operation does not disturb the timing of the coil signals in any way. This is one of the tremendous advantages of using a parallel-processing system. Program 26-1 lists the code segment for the LCD cog.
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program 26-1 Code Segment for LCD to Display a Message
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Pub Cog.LCD LCD.INITIALIZE_LCD repeat LCD.POSITION (1,1) LCD.PRINT(STRING("Div=" )) LCD.PRINT_DEC(PotValue) LCD.SPACE(2)
'set up and run the LCD 'initialize the LCD 'LCD loop 'Go to 1st line 1st space 'print identifier message 'print the pot reading 'erase over old data
note We will be using one or two potentiometers read into 12 bits as the controlling variables for our experiments. The 0-to-4,095 readings will be used to control the range of operation of the motor in its various modes in Program 26-2 and the following programs. We have been using the Utilities program (which contains the method we need) for reading the potentiometer. The complete code was developed in 4 and is listed in Appendix A.
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