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The name you give to a directory or file when you create it is not its full name. The full name of a directory is its pathname. The hierarchically nested relationship among directories forms paths, and these paths can be used to identify and reference any directory or file unambiguously. In Figure 12-3, a path exists from the root directory, /, through the home directory to the robert directory. Another path exists from the root directory through the home and chris directories to the reports directory. Although parts of each path may at first be shared, at some point they differ. Both the directories robert and reports share the two directories, root and home. Then they differ. In the home directory, robert ends with robert, but the directory chris then leads to reports. In this way, each directory in the file structure can be said to have its own unique path. The actual name by which the system identifies a directory always begins with the root directory and consists of all directories nested above that directory.
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Figure 12-3: Directory pathnames In Linux, you write a pathname by listing each directory in the path separated by a forward slash. A slash preceding the first directory in the path represents the root. The pathname for the robert directory is /home/robert. The pathname for the reports directory is /home/chris/reports. Pathnames also apply to files. When you create a file within a directory, you give the file a name. The actual name by which the system identifies the file, however, is the filename combined with the path of directories from the root tothe file's directory. In Figure 12-4, the path for the weather file consists of the root, home, and chris directories and the filename weather. The pathname for weather is /home/ chris/ weather (the root directory is represented by the first slash).
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Figure 12-4: Pathname for Weather: /home/chris/weather Pathnames may be absolute or relative. An absolute pathname is the complete pathname of a file or directory beginning with the root directory. A relative pathname begins from your
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working directory; it is the path of a file relative to your working directory. The working directory is the one you are currently operating in. Using the directory structure described in Figure 12-4, if chris is your working directory, the relative pathname for the file monday is reports/monday. The absolute pathname for monday is /home/chris/ reports/monday. The absolute pathname from the root to your home directory could be especially complex and, at times, even subject to change by the system administrator. To make it easier to reference, you can use a special character, the tilde ~, which represents the absolute pathname of your home directory. In the next example, from the thankyou directory, the user references the weather file in the home directory by placing a tilde and slash before weather:
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$ pwd /home/chris/letters/thankyou $ cat ~/weather raining and warm $
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You must specify the rest of the path from your home directory. In the next example, the user references the monday file in the reports directory. The tilde represents the path to the user's home directory, /home/chris, and then the rest of the path to the monday file is specified.
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$ cat ~/reports/monday
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The root directory that begins the Linux file structure contains several system directories. The system directories contain files and programs used to run and maintain the system. Many contain other subdirectories with programs for executing specific features of Linux. For example, the directory /usr/bin contains the various Linux commands that users execute, such as cp and mv. The directory /bin holds interfaces with different system devices, such as the printer or the terminal. Table 12-2 lists the basic system directories. Table 12-2: Standard System Directories in Linux Function Begins the file system structure, called the root Contains users' home directories Holds all the standard commands and utility programs Holds those files and commands used by the system; this directory breaks down into several subdirectories Holds user-oriented commands and utility programs Holds system administration commands Holds libraries for programming languages Holds Linux documentation Holds the online manual Man files Holds spooled files, such as those generated for printing jobs and network transfers Holds system administration commands for booting the system
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Directory / /home /bin /usr /usr/bin /usr/sbin /usr/lib /usr/share/doc /usr/share/man /usr/spool /sbin
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