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Table 12-2: Standard System Directories in Linux Function Holds files that vary, such as mailbox files Holds file interfaces for devices such as the terminals and printers
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Holds system configuration files and any other system files /etc Note The overall organization of the Linux file structure for system directories and other useful directories such as those used for the kernel and X Window System are discussed in detail in 32.
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One of the primary functions of an operating system is the management of files. You may need to perform certain basic output operations on your files, such as displaying them on your screen or printing them. The Linux system provides a set of commands that perform basic file-management operations, such as listing, displaying, and printing files, as well as copying, renaming, and erasing files. These commands are usually made up of abbreviated versions of words. For example, the ls command is a shortened form of "list" and lists the files in your directory. The lpr command is an abbreviated form of "line print" and will print a file. The cat and more commands display the contents of a file on the screen. Table 12-3 lists these commands with their different options. When you log in to your Linux system, you may want a list of the files in your home directory. The ls command, which outputs a list of your file and directory names, is useful for this. The ls command has many possible options for displaying filenames according to specific features. These are discussed in more detail at the end of the chapter. Table 12-3: Listing, Displaying, and Printing Files Command or Option Execution ls cat This command lists file and directory names: $ ls filenames This filter can be used to display a file. It can take filenames for its arguments. It outputs the contents of those files directly to the standard output, which, by default, is directed to the screen: $ cat filenames This utility displays a file screen by screen. It can take filenames for its arguments. It outputs the contents of those files to the screen, one screen at a time: $ more filenames Begins displaying the file at page num. Skips forward num number of screens. Skips backward num number of screens. Displays half a screen.
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Table 12-3: Listing, Displaying, and Printing Files Command or Option Execution h q lpr Lists all more commands. Quits more utility. Sends a file to the line printer to be printed; a list of files may be used as arguments: $ lpr filenames Selects a specific printer. Lists the print queue for printing jobs. Removes a printing job from the printing queue.
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You may also need to look at the contents of a file. The cat and more commands display the contents of a file on the screen. "cat" stands for concatenate. The cat command is complex and versatile, as described in 11. Here it is used in a limited way, displaying the text of a file on the screen:
$ cat mydata computers
The cat command outputs the entire text of a file to the screen at once. This presents a problem when the file is large because its text quickly speeds past on the screen. The more command is designed to overcome this limitation by displaying one screen of text at a time. You can then move forward or backward in the text at your leisure. You invoke the more command by entering the command name followed by the name of the file you want to view.
$ more mydata
When more invokes a file, the first screen of text is displayed. To continue to the next screen, you press the F key or the SPACEBAR. To move back in the text, you press the B key. You can quit at any time by pressing the Q key.
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