asp.net mvc barcode reader Printing Files: lpr, lpq, and lprm in Software

Drawer QR in Software Printing Files: lpr, lpq, and lprm

Printing Files: lpr, lpq, and lprm
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With the printer commands like lpr and lprm, you can perform printing operations like printing files or canceling print jobs (see Table 12-3). When you need to print files, use the lpr command to send files to the printer connected to your system. In the next example, the user prints the mydata file:
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$ lpr mydata
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If you want to print several files at once, you can specify more than one file on the command line after the lpr command. In the next example, the user prints out both the mydata and preface files:
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$ lpr mydata preface
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Printing jobs are placed in a queue and printed one at a time in the background. You can continue with other work as your files print. You can see the position of a particular printing job at any given time with the lpq command. lpq gives the owner of the printing job (the login name of the user who sent the job), the print job ID, the size in bytes, and the temporary file in which it is currently held. In this example, the owner is chris and the print ID is 00015:
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$ lpq Owner ID Chars Filename chris 00015 360 /usr/lpd/cfa00015
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If you need to cancel an unwanted printing job, you can do so with the lprm command. lprm takes as its argument either the ID number of the printing job or the owner's name. lprm then removes the print job from the print queue. For this task, lpq is helpful, for it provides you with the ID number and owner of the printing job you need to use with lprm. In the next example, the print job 15 is canceled:
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$ lprm 00015
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You can have several printers connected to your Linux system. One of these will be designated the default printer, and lpr prints to this printer unless another printer is specified. With lpr, you can specify the particular printer on which you want your file printed. Each printer on your system will have its own name. You can specify which printer to use with the -P option followed by that printer's name. In the next example, the file mydata is printed on the evans1 printer:
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$ lpr -Pevans1 mydata
Managing Directories: mkdir, rmdir, ls, cd, and pwd
You can create and remove your own directories, as well as change your working directory, with the mkdir, rmdir, and cd commands. Each of these commands can take as its argument the pathname for a directory. The pwd command displays the absolute pathname of your working directory. In addition to these commands, the special characters represented by a single dot, a double dot, and a tilde can be used to reference the working directory, the parent of the working directory, and the home directory, respectively. Taken together, these commands enable you to manage your directories. You can create nested directories, move from one directory to another, and use pathnames to reference any of your directories. Those commands commonly used to manage directories are listed in Table 12-4. Table 12-4: Directory Commands Execution Creates a directory: $ mkdir reports Erases a directory: $ rmdir letters Lists directory name with a preceding slash: $ ls -F today /reports /letters Lists working directory as well as all subdirectories.
Command mkdir rmdir ls -F
ls -R
Command cd directory name
Table 12-4: Directory Commands Execution Changes to the specified directory, making it the working directory. cd without a directory name changes back to the home directory: $ cd reports $ cd Displays the pathname of the working directory: $ pwd /home/chris/reports A slash is used in pathnames to separate each directory name. In the case of pathnames for files, a slash separates the preceding directory names from the filename: $ cd /home/chris/reports $ cat /home/chris/reports/mydata References the parent directory. You can use it as an argument or as part of a pathname: $ cd .. $ mv ../larisa oldletters References the working directory. You can use it as an argument or as part of a pathname: $ ls . $ mv ../aleina . The tilde is a special character that represents the pathname for the home directory. It is useful when you need to use an absolute pathname for a file or directory: $ cp monday ~/today $ mv tuesday ~/weather
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