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Table 12-7: File and Directory Permission Operations Command or Option Execution directory. >g >o >a >s >t chgrp groupname filenames chown user-name filenames ls -l filename ls -ld directory ls -l Sets permissions for group access to a file or directory. Sets permissions for access to a file or directory by all other users on the system. Sets permissions for access by the user, group, and all other users. Sets User ID and Group ID permission; program owned by owner and group. Sets sticky bit permission; program remains in memory. Changes the group for a file or files. Changes the owner of a file or files. Lists a filename with its permissions displayed. Lists a directory name with its permissions displayed. Lists all files in a directory with its permissions displayed.
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Setting Permissions: Permission Symbols
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As you might have guessed, the symbolic method of setting permissions uses the characters r, w, and x for read, write, and execute, respectively. Any of these permissions can be added or removed. The symbol to add a permission is the plus sign, +. The symbol to remove a permission is the minus sign, -. In the next example, the chmod command adds the execute permission and removes the write permission for the mydata file. The read permission is not changed.
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$ chmod +x-w mydata
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Permission symbols also specify each user category. The owner, group, and others categories are represented by the u, g, and o characters, respectively. Notice the owner category is represented by a u and can be thought of as the user. The symbol for a category is placed before the read, write, and execute permissions. If no category symbol is used, all categories are assumed, and the permissions specified are set for the user, group, and others. In the next example, the first chmod command sets the permissions for the group to read and write. The second chmod command sets permissions for other users to read. Notice no spaces are between the permission specifications and the category. The permissions list is simply one long phrase, with no spaces.
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$ chmod g+rw mydata $ chmod o+r mydata
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A user may remove permissions as well as add them. In the next example, the read permission is set for other users, but the write and execute permissions are removed:
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$ chmod o+r-wx mydata
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Another permission symbol exists, a, which represents all the categories. The a symbol is the default. In the next example, both commands are equivalent. The read permission is explicitly set with the a symbol denoting all types of users: other, group, and user.
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$ chmod a+r mydata $ chmod +r mydata
One of the most common permission operations is setting a file's executable permission. This is often done in the case of shell program files, which are discussed in s 12 and 16. The executable permission indicates a file contains executable instructions and can be directly run by the system. In the next example, the file lsc has its executable permission set and then executed:
$ chmod u+x lsc $ lsc main.c lib.c $
In addition to the read/write/execute permissions, you can also set ownership permissions for executable programs. Normally, the user who runs a program owns it while it is running, even though the program file itself may be owned by another user. The Set User ID permission allows the original owner of the program to own it always, even while another user is running the program. For example, most software on the system is owned by the root user, but is run by ordinary users. Some such software may have to modify files owned by the root. In this case, the ordinary user would need to run that program with the root retaining ownership so the program could have the permissions to change those root-owned files. The Group ID permission works the same way, except for groups. Programs owned by a group retain ownership, even when run by users from another group. The program can then change the owner group's files. There is a potential security risk involved in that you are essentially giving a user some limited root-level access. To add both the User ID and Group ID permissions to a file, you use the s option. The following example adds the User ID permission to the pppd program, which is owned by the root user. When an ordinary user runs pppd, the root user retains ownership, allowing the pppd program to change root-owned files.
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