Internet Addresses in Software

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The Internet uses a set of network protocols called TCP/IP, which stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. In a TCP/IP network, messages are broken into small components called datagrams, which are then transmitted through various interlocking routes and delivered to their destination computers. Once received, the datagrams are reassembled into the original message. Datagrams are also referred to as packets. Sending messages as small components has proved far more reliable and faster than sending them as one large bulky transmission. With small components, if one is lost or damaged, only that component has to be resent, whereas if any part of a large transmission is corrupted or lost, the entire message must be resent. On a TCP/IP network such as the Internet, each computer is given a unique address called an IP address. The IP address is used to identify and locate a particular host-a computer connected to the network. It consists of a number, usually four sets of three numbers separated by periods. An example of an IP address is 192.168.187.4. IP addressing is described in detail in 39. Non-Internet machines use a gateway to connect to the Internet (see s 25 and 39). All hosts on the Internet are identified by their IP addresses. When you send a message to a host on the Internet, you must provide its IP address. Using a sequence of four numbers of an IP address, however, can be difficult. They are hard to remember, and it's easy to make mistakes when typing them. To make identifying a computer on the Internet easier, the Domain Name Service (DNS) was implemented. The DNS establishes a domain name address for each IP address. The domain name address is a series of names separated by periods. Whenever you use a domain name address, it is automatically converted to an IP address, which is then used to identify that Internet host. The domain name address is far easier to use than its corresponding IP address. A domain name address needs to be registered with an Internet domain name registry like the American Registry for Internet Number (ARIN) so that each computer on the Internet can have a unique name (see www.iana.org for more information). Creating a name follows specified naming conventions. The domain name address consists of the hostname, the name you gave to your computer; a domain name, the name that identifies your network; and an
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extension that identifies the type of network you are on. Here is the syntax for domain addresses:
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host-name.domain-name.extension
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In the following example, the domain address references a computer called metalab on a network referred to as unc. It is part of an educational institution, as indicated by the extension edu.
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metalab.unc.edu
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With the whois command, you can obtain information for domain name servers about different networks and hosts connected to the Internet. Enter whois and the domain name address of the host or network, and whois displays information about the host, such as the street address and phone number, as well as contact persons.
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$ whois domain-address
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You can use File Transfer Protocol (FTP) clients to transfer extremely large files directly from one site to another. FTP can handle both text and binary files. This is one of the TCP/IP protocols, and it operates on systems connected to networks that use the TCP/IP protocols, such as the Internet. FTP performs a remote login to another account on another system connected to you on a network, such as the Internet. Once logged into that other system, you can transfer files to and from it. To log in, you need to know the login name and password for the account on the remote system. For example, if you have accounts at two different sites on the Internet, you can use FTP to transfer files from one to the other. Many sites on the Internet allow public access using FTP, however. Many sites serve as depositories for large files anyone can access and download. Such sites are often referred to as FTP sites, and in many cases, their Internet address begins with the word ftp, such as ftp.gnome.org or ftp.redhat.com. Others begin with other names, such as metalab.unc.edu. These public sites allow anonymous FTP login from any user. For the login name, you use the word "anonymous," and for the password you use your Internet address. You can then transfer files from that site to your own system. You can perform FTP operations using any one of a number of FTP client programs. For Linux systems, you can choose from several FTP clients. Many now operate using GUI interfaces such as Gnome. Some, such as Netscape, have limited capabilities, whereas others, such as NcFTP, include an extensive set of enhancements. The original FTP client is just as effective, though not as easy to use. It operates using a simple command line interface and requires no GUI or cursor support, as do other clients.
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