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With the chkconfig command you can specify the service you want start and the level you want to start it at. Unlike other service management tools, chkconfig works equally well on standalone and xinetd services. Although standalone services can be run at any runlevel, you can also turn xinetd services on or off for the runlevels that xinetd runs in. Table 22-1 lists the different chkconfig options. You use the on option to have a service started at certain runlevels, and the off option to not have it started. You can specify the runlevel to use with the --level option. If no level is specified, then chkconfig will use any chkconfig default information in a service's init.d startup script. Red Hat installs its services with chkconfig default information already entered (should this be missing, chkconfig will use runlevels 3, 4, and 5). The following example will have the Web server (httpd) started at runlevel 5.
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chkconfig --level 5 httpd on
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The off option will actually configure a service to shut down if it enters a specified runlevel. This example will shut down the Web sever if runlevel 3 is entered. If it is not running, it remains shut down:
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chkconfig --level 3 httpd off
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Option --level runlevel --list service
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Table 22-1: chkconfig Options Description Specifies a runlevel to turn on, off, or reset a service. Lists startup information for services at different runlevels. xinetd services are just on or off. With no argument, all services are listed, including xinetd services. Adds a service, creating links in default specified runlevels (or all if none specified). Deletes all links for the service (startup and shutdown) in all runlevel directories.
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--add service --del service
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Option service on service off service reset
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Table 22-1: chkconfig Options Description Turns a service on, creating a startup link in the specified or default runlevel directories. Turns a service off, creating shutdown links in specified or default directories Resets a service startup information, creating default links as specified in the chkconfig entry in the service's init.d startup script.
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The reset option will restore a service to its chkconfig default options as specified in the service's init.d startup script:
chkconfig wu-ftpd reset
To see just the startup information for a service, you use just the service name with the --list option:
chkconfig --list httpd httpd 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off 5:on 6:off
Unlike the System V Init Editor and ntsysv, chkconfig also has the ability to have xinetd services enabled or disabled. Simply enter the xinetd service with either an on or off option. The service will be started up or shut down and its xinetd configuration script in the /etc/xinetd.d directory will have its disable line edited accordingly. For example, to start swat, the Samba configuration server, which runs on xinetd, you simply enter:
chkconfig swat on chkconfig --list swat swat on
The swat configuration file for xinetd, /etc/xinetd.d/swat, will have its disable line edited to "no," as shown here:
disable=no
Should you want to shut down the swat server, you can use the off option. This will change the disable line in /etc/xinetd.d/swat to read disable=yes.
chkconfig swat off
The same procedure works for other xinetd services such as wu-ftpd, the FTP server, and finger. Should you want a service removed entirely from the entire startup and shutdown process in all runlevels, you can use the --del option. This removes all startup and shutdown links in all the runlevel directories.
chkconfig --del httpd
You can also have services added to management by chkconfig with the --add option. chkconfig will create startup links for it in the appropriate startup directories, /etc/rc.d/rcn.d. If you have previously removed all links for a service, you can restore them with the --add option:
chkconfig --add httpd
To see a list of services managed by https, you use the --list option. A sampling of services managed by chkconfig are shown here. The on and off status of the service is shown at each runlevel. xinted services and their status are also shown:
chkconfig -list dhcpd 0:off 6:off httpd 0:off 6:off named 0:off 6:off tux 0:off 6:off kudzu 0:off 6:off innd 0:off 6:off lpd 0:off 6:off nfs 0:off 6:off smb 0:off 6:off crond 0:off 6:off xinetd 0:off 6:off xinetd based services: time: off finger: off pop3s: off swat: on wu-ftpd: off 1:off 1:off 1:off 1:off 1:off 1:off 1:off 1:off 1:off 1:off 1:off 2:off 2:off 2:off 2:off 2:off 2:off 2:on 2:off 2:off 2:on 2:off 3:off 3:off 3:off 3:off 3:on 3:off 3:on 3:off 3:off 3:on 3:on 4:off 4:off 4:off 4:off 4:on 4:off 4:on 4:off 4:off 4:on 4:on 5:off 5:off 5:off 5:off 5:on 5:off 5:on 5:off 5:off 5:on 5:on
chkconfig works by creating startup and shutdown links in the appropriate runlevel directories in the /etc/rc.d directory. For example, when chkconfig added the httpd service at runlevel 5, it created a link in the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d directory to the startup script httpd in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory. When it turned off the Web service from runlevel 3, it created a shutdown link in the /etc/rc.d/rc3.d directory to use the script httpd in the /etc/rc.d/initd directory to make sure the Web service is not started. In the following example, the user turns on the Web service (httpd) on runlevel 3, creating the startup link in rc5.d, S85httpd, and then turns off the Web service on runlevel 3, creating a shutdown link in rc3.d, K15httpd.
chkconfig --level 5 httpd on ls /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/*httpd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/K15httpd chkconfig -level 3 httpd off ls /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/*httpd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/K15httpd
Default runlevel information should be placed in the startup scripts that are to be managed by chkconfig. Red Hat has already placed this information in the startup scripts for the services that are installed with its distribution. You can edit these scripts to change the default information if you wish. This information is entered as a line beginning with a # sign and followed by the chkconfig keyword and a colon. Then you list the default runlevels that the service should start up on, along with the start and stop priorities. The following entry lists runlevels 3 and 5 with a start priority of 85 and a stop of 15:
# chkconfig: 35 85 15
Now when a user turns on the httpd service with no level option specified, chkconfig will start up httpd at runlevels 3, 4, and 5:
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