asp.net reading barcode 23: FTP Servers in Software

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23: FTP Servers
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The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is designed to transfer large files across a network from one system to another. Like most Internet operations, FTP works on a client/server model. FTP client programs can enable users to transfer files to and from a remote system running an FTP server program. 19 discusses FTP clients. Any Linux system can operate as an FTP server. It only has to run the server software-an FTP daemon with the appropriate configuration. Transfers are made between user accounts on client and server systems. A user on the remote system has to log in to an account on a server and can then transfer files to and from that account's directories only. A special kind of user account, named ftp, allows any user to log in to it with the username "anonymous." This account has its own set of directories and files that are considered public, available to anyone on the network who wants to download them. The numerous FTP sites on the Internet are FTP servers supporting FTP user accounts with anonymous login. Any Linux system can be configured to support anonymous
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FTP access, turning them into network FTP sites. Such sites can work on an intranet or on the Internet. Note On Red Hat, the configuration files for anonymous FTP are in packages beginning with the term anonftp. Installing this package sets up your FTP directories and configures the FTP account.
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FTP server software consists of an FTP daemon and configuration files. The daemon is a program that continuously checks for FTP requests from remote users. When a request is received, it manages a login, sets up the connection to the requested user account, and executes any FTP commands the remote user sends. For anonymous FTP access, the FTP daemon allows the remote user to log in to the FTP account using anonymous or ftp as the username. The user then has access to the directories and files set up for the FTP account. As a further security measure, however, the daemon changes the root directory for that session to be the FTP home directory. This hides the rest of the system from the remote user. Normally, any user on a system can move around to any directories open to him or her. A user logging in with anonymous FTP can only see the FTP home directory and its subdirectories. The remainder of the system is hidden from that user. This effect is achieved by the chroot operation (discussed later) that literally changes the system root directory for that user to that of the FTP directory. By default, the FTP server also requires a user be using a valid shell. It checks for a list of valid shells in the /etc/shells file. Most daemons have options for turning off this feature. Several FTP server daemons are available for use on Linux systems. Most Linux distributions come with the Washington University FTP server called wu-ftpd. You can download RPM package updates for particular distributions from their FTP sites, such as ftp.redhat.com. The software package usually begins with the term wu-ftpd. You can obtain the original compressed archive from the Washington University archive at http://wuarchive.wustl.edu/packages/wuarchive-ftpd. ProFTPD is a newer and popular FTP daemon based on an Apache Web server design. It features simplified configuration and support for virtual FTP hosts. Although it is not currently included with most distributions, you can download RPM packages from Red Hat. Check the contrib directories. The package begins with the term proftpd. The compressed archive of the most up-to-date version, along with documentation, is available at the ProFTPD Web site at www.proftpd.net. Another FTP daemon, ncftpd, is a commercial product produced by the same programmers who did the ncftp FTP client. ncftpd is free for academic use and features a reduced fee for small networks. Check www.ncftpd.org for more information. Note Several security-based FTP servers are also available, including SSLftp and SSH sftp. SSLftp uses SSL (secure socket layer) to encrypt and authenticate transmissions, as well as MD5 digests to check the integrity of transmitted files. SSH sftp is an FTP server is now part of the Open SSH package, using SSH encryption and authentication to establish secure FTP connections. Red Hat currently installs the wu-ftpd server and the anon anonymous FTP package during installation. At that time, an ftp directory along with several subdirectories are created where
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you can place files for FTP access. The directories have already been configured to control access by remote users, restricting use to only the ftp directories and any subdirectories. The ftp directory is placed in different directories by different distributions. On Red Hat, the ftp directory is placed in the /var directory, /var/ftp. Place the files you want to allow access to in the ftp/pub directory. For example, on Red Hat this would be at /var/ftp/pub. You can also create subdirectories and place files there. Once connected to a network, a remote user can connect to your system and download files you placed in ftp/pub or any of its subdirectories. The anon FTP package implements a default configuration for those directories and their files. You can change these if you want. If you are installing an FTP server yourself, you need to know the procedures detailed in the following sections to install an FTP server and create its data directories. The anon FTP package does not create a directory where users can upload files to the FTP site. Such a directory is usually named the incoming directory located at ftp/pub/incoming. If you want such as directory, you will have to create it, make it part of the ftp group, and then set its permissions to allow users write access.
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