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Configuring the wu-ftpd Server with kwuftpd
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Red Hat 7.1 includes a GUI wu-ftpd configuration tool for the KDE desktop called kwuftpd. Though still under development, current versions can be used to configure your ftpaccess file easily. On Red Hat, you can access kwuftpd from the KDE desktop. Kwuftpd presents a set of tabbed panels for tasks like controlling users and uploads, specifying server directories, and setting up virtual hosts. Figure 23-1 shows the Security panel where you can specify files that can't be accessed, control access to basic commands by real, guest, and anonymous users, and specify the allowable number of failed logins.
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Figure 23-1: kwuftpd With kwuftpd, you can also set up virtual hosts. On the Virtual Hosts panel, shown in Figure 23-2, you can specify the virtual host information such as the hostname, root directory, and log file. Click on the Add button to create a Virtual Host entry, then enter its information. You can also control access by real users.
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Figure 23-2: Virtual hosts with kwuftpd Note You can also use Linuxconf and Webmin to configure the wu-ftpd server. Linuxconf requires that you load its wu-ftpd module.
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You can use numerous configuration options to tailor your FTP server to your site's particular needs. wu-ftpd makes use of several configuration files located in the system's /etc directory. All begin with the pattern ftp. The primary configuration file is named ftpaccess. Here, you provide basic server information and access for specified directories. The ftphosts, ftpusers, and ftpgroups control access by systems, particular users, and groups. ftpconversions specifies how archive and compression operations are to be performed on files before or after they are transferred. xferlog is the log file that stores a running log of all transactions performed by the server.
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The ftpaccess file determines capabilities users have after they gain access to your FTP site. Access, information, permissions, logging, and several miscellaneous capabilities can be
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designated. You can have entries that create aliases for certain directories, display a message when FTP users log in, or prevent anonymous users from deleting files. A loginfails entry determines the number of login tries a user can make before being cut off, and the email entry specifies the e-mail address of the FTP administrator. The Man page for ftpaccess lists the possible entries. The ftpaccess file with the configuration used on Red Hat systems is shown in this section. For commonly used ftpaccess entries, see Table 23-2. For more detailed information, check the ftpaccess Man page and wu-ftpd documentation. In the ftpaccess file, you set capabilities for different types of users, called classes. Three different types of users exist: anonymous, guest, and real. Anonymous users are any users using the anonymous login name. Guest users are those given special guest access with guestgroup or guestuser options. A real user is one who has an account on the system and is using an FTP connection to access it. You can define your own class using the class option. In the ftpaccess file shown here, a class called all is created that consists of all users of the anonymous, guest, and real types. The message entry specifies a file with the message to be displayed and when that message is to appear. You can have one message appear when users log in and other messages displayed when users enter certain directories. For example, the following entry will display the message in the /welcome.msg file when a user logs in:
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message /welcome.msg login
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Table 23-2: /etc/ftpaccess wu-ftpd Configuration File Access Capabilities Description autogroup group classglob [classglob...] class class typelist addrglob [addrglob...] deny host-addrglob message_file guestgroup groupname [ groupname...] guestuser usrname [ userpname...] limit class n times message_file noretrieve file-list loginfails number Private yes|no Informational Capabilities banner file The banner is displayed before login. File requires full This allows access to a group's read-only files and directories by particular classes of anonymous users. group is a valid group from /etc/group. Defines class of users, with source addresses of the form addrglob. typelist is a comma-separated list of the user types: anonymous, guest, and real. Always deny access to host(s) matching host-addrglob. message_file is displayed. Allow guest access by a real user, where the user is a member of the specified group. A password entry for the guest user specifies a home directory within the FTP site directories. Allow guest access by a real user. Limit class to n users at times-times, displaying message_file if access is denied. Deny retrieval ability of these files. After number login failures, terminate the FTP connection. Default value is 5. The user becomes a member of the group specified in the group access file ftpgroups.
Table 23-2: /etc/ftpaccess wu-ftpd Configuration File Access Capabilities Description pathname. email email-address message file { when { class ...}} Defines the e-mail address of the FTP manager. FTP displays the contents of the file at login time or upon changing directories. The when parameter may be LOGIN or CWD=dir; dir specifies the directory that displays the message when entered. Magic cookies can be in the message file that cause the FTP server to replace the cookie with a specified text string, such as the date or the username. The user is notified at login time or upon using a change working directory command (cd) that file exists and was modified on such and such date. Description Enables logging of individual commands by users. Enables logging of file transfers. directions is a commaseparated list of the terms "inbound" and "outbound," and logs transfers for files sent to the server and sent from the server. Defines an alias, string, for a directory. Defines an entry in cdpath. This defines a search path used when changing directories. Enables compress or tar capabilities for any class matching of classglob. The actual conversions are defined in the external file ftconversion. If the file pointed to by path exists, the server checks the file regularly to see if the server is going to be shut down. Enables the virtual FTP server capabilities. Specify the root, banner, and logfile files. Specify the hostname and e-mail for the virtual host. List users allowed access to the virtual host.
readme file { when { class}} Logging Capabilities log commands typelist log transfers typelist directions Miscellaneous Capabilities alias string dir cdpath dir compress yes|no classglob [ classglob tar yes|no classglob [ classglob...]...] shutdown path virtual address root|banner|logfile path virtual address hostname|email string virtual address allow userlist virtual address private virtual address password path virtual address shadow path Permission Capabilities chmod yes | no typelist
virtual address deny user-list List users denied access to the virtual host. Deny access by anonymous users Use a different password file for the virtual host. Use a different shadow password file for the virtual host. Allows or disallows the ability to perform the specified function. By default, all users are allowed. Allow or disallow changing file permissions.
Table 23-2: /etc/ftpaccess wu-ftpd Configuration File Access Capabilities Description delete yes | no typelist Permission Capabilities overwrite yes | no typelist rename yes | no typelist umask yes | no typelist Allow or disallow deleting files, rm. Description Allow or disallow modifying files. Allow or disallow renaming files, mv. Allow or disallow file creation permissions.
passwd-check none | trivial | Define the level and enforcement of password checking done by the server for anonymous FTP. rfc822 requires an e-mail rfc822 (enforce | warn) address in a valid e-mail address format. path-filter typelist mesg For users in typelist, path-filter defines regular expressions allowed_charset { disallowed that control what a filename can or cannot be. Multiple regexp...} disallowed regexps may occur. upload root-dir dirglob yes|no owner group mode ["dirs"|"nodirs"] Define a directory with dirglob, which permits or denies uploads.
To set permissions, you use the command followed by a yes or a no and then a list of the user types or classes. An example of the ftpaccess file on Red Hat systems is shown here. In this example, all users can perform tar and compress operations, but anonymous and guest users are prohibited from using chmod, delete, overwrite, and rename operations. They also cannot erase files, modify them, or change their names or permissions. /etc/ftpaccess
# define the class of users class all real,guest,anonymous * # Email address of FTP managerm email root@localhost # Allow only 5 login failures per connection loginfails 5 # Login and change directory README files readme README* login readme README* cwd=* # Login and change directory message files message /welcome.msg login message .message cwd=* # Set permissions # Allow access to compress and tar operations. compress yes all tar yes all # Deny access by guests and anonymous users to commands chmod no guest,anonymous delete no guest,anonymous overwrite no guest,anonymous rename no guest,anonymous # Log file transfers, shutdown notice, password email address log transfers anonymous,real inbound,outbound
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