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If you are setting up a DNS server for a local area network (LAN) that is not connected to the Internet, you should use a special set of IP numbers reserved for such non-Internet networks (also known as private networks or intranets). This is especially true if you are implementing IP masquerading, where only a gateway machine has an Internet address, and the others make use of that one address to connect to the Internet. For a class C network (254 hosts or less), these are numbers that have the special network number 192.168, as used in these examples. If you are setting up a LAN, such as a small business or home network, you are free to use these numbers for your local machines. You can set up a private network, such as an intranet, using network cards such as Ethernet cards and Ethernet hubs, and then configure your machines with IP addresses starting from 192.168.1.1. The host segment can range from 1 to 254, where 255 is used for the broadcast address. If you have three machines on your home network, you can give them the addresses 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1.2, and 192.168.1.3. You can then set up domain name services for your network by running a DNS server on one of the machines. This machine becomes your network's DNS server. You can then give your machines fully qualified domain names and configure your DNS server to translate the names to their corresponding IP addresses. As shown in Figure 25-2, for example, you could give the machine 192.168.1.1 the name turtle.mytrek.com, and the machine 192.168.1.2 the name rabbit.mytrek.com. You can also implement Internet services on your network such as FTP, Web, and mail services by setting up servers for them on your machines. You can then configure your DNS server to let users access those services using fully qualified domain names. For example, for the mytrek.com network, the Web server could be accessed using the name www.mytrek.com. Instead of a Domain Name Service, you could have the /etc/hosts files in each machine contain the entire list of IP addresses and domain names for all the machines in your network. But, for any changes, you would have to update each machine's /etc/hosts file.
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Figure 25-2: DNS server and network Numbers are also reserved for class A and class B non-Internet local networks. Table 25-1 lists these addresses. The possible addresses available span from 0 to 255 in the host segment of the address. For example, class B network addresses range from 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.255.255, giving you a total of 65,534 possible hosts. The class C network ranges from 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255, giving you 254 possible subnetworks, each with 254 possible hosts. The number 127.0.0.0 is reserved for a system's loopback interface, which allows it to communicate with itself, as it enables users on the same system to send messages to each other. These numbers were originally designed for class-based addressing. However, they can just as easily be used for Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) addressing, where you can create subnetworks with a smaller number of hosts. For example, the 254 hosts addressed in a class C network could be split into two subnetworks, each with 125 hosts. See 39 for more details. Table 25-1: Non-Internet Private Network IP Addresses Network Class A network Class B network Class C network Loopback network (for system self-communication)
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172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0 127.0.0.0
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The DNS server software currently in use on Linux systems is Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND). BIND was originally developed at the University of California, Berkeley, and is currently maintained and supported by the Internet Software Consortium (ISC). You can obtain BIND information and current software releases from its Web site at www.isc.org. Web page documentation and manuals are included with the software package. RPM packages are available at the Red Hat FTP site. The BIND directory in /usr/share/doc contains extensive documentation, including Web page manuals and examples. The Linux
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HOW-TO for the Domain Name Service, DNS-HOWTO, provides detailed examples. Documentation, news, and DNS tools can be obtained from the DNS Resource Directory (DNSRD) at www.dns.net/dnsrd. The site includes extensive links and online documentation, including the BIND Operations Guide (BOG). See Table 25-2 for a list of DNS resources. Note Several alternative DNS servers are now available. These include djbdns, noted for its security features; CustomDNS, a dynamic server implemented in Java (customdns.sourceforge.net); and Yaku-NS, an embedded server. djbdns (dgbdns.org), written by D. J. Bernstein, is designed specifically with security in mind, providing a set of small server daemons, each performing specialized tasks. In particular, djbdns separates the name server, caching server, and zone transfer tasks into separate programs. tinydns implements the authoritative name server for a network, whereas dnscache implements a caching server that will resolve requests form DNS clients like Web browsers. In effect, dnscache operates as the name server that your applications will use to resolve addresses. dnscache will then query tinydns to resolve addresses on your local network. Zone transfers are handled separately by axfrdns and asfget. Currently ISC has contracted with two companies, Nominum and Mind, to provide BIND support. Nominum is an ISC support partner and has taken an active role in BIND development. At its Web site at www.nominum.com, you can find BIND documentation, including the BIND 9 Administrator's Reference. Nominum, like many commercial companies that support open source software, provides professional consultant and support services, while freely contributing to open source development. Mind provides consulting services for the European market. Table 25-2: BIND Resources Resource Internet Software Consortium DNS Resource Directory Nominum, BIND support and consulting Mind, BIND support and consulting for Europe
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