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27: News, Proxy, and Search Servers
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News servers provide Internet users with Usenet news services. They have their own TCP/IP protocol, Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP). In addition, servers exist that provide better access to Internet resources. Proxy servers speed Web access by maintaining current copies of commonly accessed Web pages, speeding access times by eliminating the need to access the original site constantly. They also perform security functions, protecting servers from unauthorized access. The search and indexing server ht:/Dig enables document searches of Web and FTP sites. With it, you can index documents and carry out complex search requests. Table 27-1 lists different news, proxy, and search servers.
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News Servers: INN
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The InterNetNews (INN) news server accesses Usenet newsfeeds, providing news clients on your network with the full range of newsgroups and their articles. Newsgroup articles are transferred using the NNTP, and servers that support this protocol are known as NNTP servers. INN was written by Rich Salz, and is currently maintained and supported by the Internet Software Consortium (ISC). You can download current versions from its Web site at www.isc.org. INN is also included with most Linux distributions, including Red Hat. The documentation directory for INN in /usr/share/doc contains extensive samples. The primary program for INN is the innd daemon. Various INN configuration files can be found in /etc/news, including inn.conf, storage.conf, readers.conf, and incoming.conf (see Table 27-2). inn.conf sets options for INN, and the incoming.conf file holds the hosts from which you receive newsfeeds. Place entries for remote hosts in the readers.conf file to allow them access to your news server. Actual newsfeeds are managed in directories in the /var/spool/news directory. Here you will find directories like article that holds newsgroup articles, outgoing for articles being posted by your users to newsgroups, and overview, which holds summary information about articles. Correct configuration of INN can be a complex and time-consuming process, so be sure to consult references and online resources, such as the documents. When you change configurations, be sure to restart the INN server. An innd script is in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory, which has arguments similar to the Web httpd script. You can use start, restart, and stop arguments with the innd script to start, restart, and stop the INN server. Table 27-1: News, Proxy, and Search Servers Description InterNetNews news server, INN Leafnode news server Squid proxy server
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ht://Dig search and indexing server www.htdig.org Tip There is a Man page for each configuration file in INN, providing detailed information on how to configure their features. On Red Hat, a basic inn.conf file is already set up for you with default settings. Several of the initial parameters you will have to set yourself, such as domain, which holds the domain name for your server; pathhost, in which you specify the name for your newsreader as you want it to appear in the Path header field for news articles you post; and server, in which you specify your newsreader's IP or fully qualified domain name address, like mynews.mytrek.com. Different Path options have already been set up for you defining the location of different INN directories, such as patharticles set to /var/spool/news articles that holds your newsgroup articles, and pathetc set to /etc/news for your configuration files. Table 27-2: INN Configuration Files Description General INN configuration file. Specify hosts from which newsfeeds are received.
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File inn.conf incoming.conf
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Table 27-2: INN Configuration Files Description Configures buffers used in cnfs storage format. Define storage classes. These consist of a storage method and the newsgroups that use it. Storage methods are the storage formats: tradspool, timehash, timecaf, and cnfs. An additional method, trash, throws out the articles. Sets the expiration policy for articles on the news server. Designates hosts whose users can access the news server with newsreaders. Configures ovdb storage method for overviews. Defines how your news server feeds articles to other news servers. Moderated newsgroups. Configures cleanfeed spam blocking utility. Configures newsfeed processes for innfeed. Configures innreport utility for generating log-based reports. Configures overview buffer for buffindexed method.
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expire.ctl readers.conf ovdb.conf newsfeeds moderated cleanfeed.conf innfeed.conf innreport.conf buffindexed.conf
Storage formats for the vast number of news articles that are often downloaded and accessed is a central concern for a full-scale news server like INN. INN lets you choose among four possible storage formats: tradspool, timehash, timecaf, and cnfs. tadspool is the traditional method where articles are arranged in a simple directory structure according to their newsgroups. This is known to be very time-consuming to access and store. timehash stores articles in directories organized by the time they were received, making it easier to remove outdated articles. timecaf is similar to timehash, but articles received at a given time are placed in the same file, making access much faster. cnfs stores articles into buffer files that have already been set up. When a buffer file becomes full, the older articles are overwritten by new ones as they come in. This is an extremely fast method since no new files are created. There is no need for setting maximum article limits, but there is also no control on how long an article is retained. In the storage.conf file, storage formats are assigned as storage methods to different newsgroups. INN also supports overviews. These are summaries of articles that readers can check, instead of having to download the entire article to see what it is. Overviews have their own storage methods: tradindexed, buffindexed, and ovdb. You specify the one you want to use in the ovmethod feature in inn.conf. tradindexed is fast for readers, but difficult for the server to generate. buffindexed is fast for news servers, but slow for readers. ovdb uses Berkeley DB database files and is very fast for both, but uses more disk space. If you choose ovdb, you can set configuration parameters for it in ovdb.conf. Red Hat has already created a news user with a newsgroup for use by your INN daemon and has set up the news directories in /var/spool/news. INN software also installs cron scripts, which are used to update your news server, removing old articles and fetching new ones. These are usually placed in the /etc/cron.daily directory, though they may reside anywhere. inn-cron-expire removes old articles and inn-cron-rnews retrieves new ones. inn-cronnntpsend sends articles posted from your system to other news servers.
INN also includes several support programs to provide maintenance and crash recovery, and perform statistical analysis on server performance and usage. cleanfeed implements spam protection and innreport generates INN reports based on logs. INN also features a very strong filter system for screening unwanted articles.
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