# shutdown -h +10
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Command shutdown [-rkhncft] time [warning-message]
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Table 28-3: System Shutdown Options Description Shuts the system down after the specified time period, issuing warnings to users; you can specify a warning message of your own after the time argument; if neither -h nor -r is specified to shut down the system, the system sets to the administrative mode, runlevel state 1. Has two possible formats: it can be an absolute time in the format hh:mm, with hh as the hour (one or two digits) and mm as the minute (in two digits); it can also be in the format +m, with m as the number of minutes to wait; the word now is an alias for +0. Tells init to wait sec seconds for the interval between sending processes the warning and the kill signals, before changing to another runlevel. Doesn't actually shut down; only sends the warning messages to everybody. Reboots after shutdown, runlevel state 6. Halts after shutdown, runlevel state 0. Doesn't call init to do the shutdown; you do it yourself. Does a fast reboot. Cancels an already running shutdown; no time argument.
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Option -t sec
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-k -r -h -n -f -c
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To shut down the system immediately, you can use +0 or the word now. The following example has the same effect as the CTRL-ALT-DEL method of shutting down your system, as described in 3. It shuts down the system immediately, and then reboots.
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# shutdown -r now
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With the shutdown command, you can include a warning message to be sent to all users currently logged in, giving them time to finish what they are doing before you shut them down.
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# shutdown -h +5 "System needs a rest"
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If you do not specify either the -h or the -r options, the shutdown command shuts down the multiuser mode and shifts you to an administrative single-user mode. In effect, your system state changes from 3 (multiuser state) to 1 (administrative single-user state). Only the root user is active, allowing the root user to perform any necessary system administrative operations with which other users might interfere. Note You can also shut down your system from the Gnome or KDE desktops.
System Directories and Files
Your Linux system is organized into directories whose files are used for different system functions. Directories with "bin" in the name are used to hold programs. The /bin directory holds basic user programs, such as login, shells (bash, tcsh, and zsh), and file commands (cp, mv, rm, ln, and so on). The /sbin directory holds specialized system programs for such tasks as file system management (fsck, fdisk, mkfs) and system operations like shutdown and startup (lilo, init). The /usr/bin directory holds program files designed for user tasks. The /usr/sbin directory holds user-related system operation, such as useradd to add new users. The /lib directory holds all the libraries your system makes use of, including the main Linux library, libc, and subdirectories such as modules, which holds all the current kernel modules.
# ls / bin boot dev etc home lib lost+found mnt proc root sbin tmp usr var
The /etc directory holds your system, network, server, and application configuration files. Here you can find the fstab file listing your file systems, the hosts file with IP addresses for hosts on your system, and lilo.conf for the boot systems provided by LILO. This directory includes various subdirectories, such as apache for the Apache Web server configuration files and X11 for the X Window System and window manager configuration files. The /mnt directory is usually used for mount points for your CD-ROM, floppy, or Zip drives. These are file systems you may be changing frequently, unlike partitions on fixed disks. The /home directory holds user home directories. When a user account is set up, a home directory for it is set up here, usually with the same name as the user. On many systems, the /home directory also holds server data directories, such as /home/httpd for the Apache Web server Web site files or /home/ftpd for your FTP site files. The /var directory holds subdirectories for tasks whose files change frequently, such as lock files, log files, or printer spool files. Red Hat currently places its server data directories in the /var directory. The /tmp directory is simply a directory to hold any temporary files programs may need to perform a particular task.
The /usr/src directory holds source files; in particular, /usr/src/linux holds the kernel source files you use to update the kernel. Data that is meant to be shared by different applications is kept in the /usr/share directory. For example, the /usr/share/doc directory holds documentation that is usually installed with different applications. Here, you can also find HOW-TO documents. The /usr /local directory is used for programs meant to be used only on this particular system. The /usr/opt directory is where optional packages are installed.