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Standard system directories and configuration files are shown in Tables 28-4 and 28-5. See 36 for network configuration files. Table 28-4: System Directories Description System-related programs System programs for specialized tasks System libraries Configuration files for system and network services and applications The location of user home directories and server data directories, such as Web and FTP site files The location where CD-ROM and floppy disk files systems are mounted The location of system directories whose files continually change, such as logs, printer spool files, and lock files User-related programs and files. Includes several key subdirectories, such as /usr/bin, /usr/X11, and /usr/doc Programs for users X Window System configuration files Shared files Documentation for applications Directory for system temporary files Table 28-5: Configuration Files Description Sets the default state, as well as terminal connections Contains user password and login configurations Contains user-encrypted passwords Contains a list of groups with configurations for each Automatically mounts file systems when you start your system The LILO configuration file for your system Modules on your system to be automatically loaded Contains a list of each printer and its specifications
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Directory /bin /sbin /lib /etc /home /mnt /var /usr /usr/bin /usr/X11 /usr/share /usr/share/doc /tmp File /etc/inittab /etc/passwd /etc/shadow /etc/group /etc/fstab /etc/lilo.conf /etc/conf.modules /etc/printcap
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Table 28-5: Configuration Files Description Contains a list of terminal type specifications for terminals that could be connected to the system Contains configuration information on terminals connected to the system Directory that holds the versions of initialization files, such as .bash_profile, which are copied to new users' home directories List of terminal types and the terminal devices to which they correspond Services run on the system and the ports they use Default shell configuration file for users Shells installed on the system that users can use System administrator's message of the day
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Each time you start your system, it reads a series of startup commands from system initialization files located in your /etc/rc.d directory. These initialization files are organized according to different tasks. Some are located in the /etc/rc.d directory itself, while others are located in a subdirectory called init.d. You should not have to change any of these files. The organization of system initialization files varies among Linux distributions. The Red Hat organization is described here. Some of the files you find in /etc/rc.d are listed in Table 28-6. Table 28-6: System Startup Files Description Directory on Red Hat Linux that holds system configuration files and directories. Directory that holds system startup and shutdown files. Initialization file for your system. Initialization file for your own commands; you can freely edit this file to add your own startup commands; this is the last startup file executed. Loads kernel modules (not implemented by default on Red Hat Linux). Directory that holds many of the daemons, servers, and scripts such as httpd for Web servers and networks to start up network connections. Directories for different runlevels where num is the runlevel. The directories hold links to scripts in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory. Operations performed each time you shut down the system, such as unmounting file systems; called rc.halt in other distributions.
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/etc/rc.d/init.d/halt
File /etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd /etc/rc.d/init.d/inet /etc/rc.d/init.d/network /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd
Table 28-6: System Startup Files Description Start up and shut down the lpd daemon. Operations to start up or shut down the inetd daemon. Operations to start up or shut down your network connections. Operations to start up or shut down your Web server daemon, httpd.
The /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit file holds the commands for initializing your system, including the mounting of your file systems. Kernel modules for specialized features or devices can be loaded in an rc.modules file. The /etc/rc.d/rc.local file is the last initialization file executed. You can place commands of your own here. If you look at this file, you see the message displayed for you every time you start the system. You can change that message if you want. When you shut down your system, the halt file, which contains the commands to do this, is called. The files in init.d are then called to shut down daemons, and the file systems are unmounted. In the current distribution of Red Hat, halt is located in the init.d directory. For other distributions, it may be called rc.halt and located in the /etc/rc.d directory. The /etc/rc.d/init.d directory is designed primarily to hold scripts that both start up and shut down different specialized daemons. Network and printer daemons are started up here. You also find files here to start font servers and Web site daemons. These files perform double duty, starting a daemon when the system starts up and shutting down the daemon when the system shuts down. The files in init.d are designed in a way to make it easy to write scripts for starting up and shutting down specialized applications. It uses functions defined in the functions file, as do many of the other init.d files. Many of these files are set up for you automatically. You needn't change them. If you do change them, be sure you know how these files work first. 22 describes this process in detail. When your system starts up, several programs are automatically started and run continuously to provide services such as Web site operations. Depending on what kind of services you want your system to provide, you can add or remove items in a list of services to be automatically started. In the installation process, you could determine what services those would be. For example, the Web server is run automatically when your system starts up. If you are not running a Web site, you would have no need, as yet, for the Web server. You could have the service not started, removing an extra task the system does not need to perform. Several of the servers and daemons perform necessary tasks. The sendmail server enables you to send messages across networks, while the lpd server performs printing operations. When your system starts up, it uses links in special runlevel directories in the /etc/rc.d/ directory to run the startup scripts in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory. A runlevel directory bears the number of its runlevel, as in /etc/rc.d/rc3.d for runlevel 3, and /etc/rc.d/rc5.d for runlevel 5. To have a service not start up, remove its link from that runlevel directory. You can use any of these scripts to start and stop a daemon manually at any time by using the stop argument to stop it, the start argument to start it again, and the restart argument to restart the daemon. Most administration tools provide interfaces displaying a simple list of services from which you can select the ones you want to start up. On the Red Hat Setup menu, select System Services and then choose from the list of servers and daemons provided. Toggle an entry on
or off with the SPACEBAR. On Linuxconf, the Control Service Activity panel lists different daemons and servers that you can have start by just clicking a check box. On Webmin, select Bootup and Shutdown on the System panel to display a list of available services that you can then configure to start up. In addition, you can use a KDE System V Init Editor (ksysv) (see 22 ) to determine which servers and daemons are to start and stop at what runlevel. ksysv provides an easy-touse GUI interface for managing the servers and daemons in your /etc/rc.d/init.d directory. You can stop, start, and assign servers to different runlevels. ksysv is easier to use because it supports drag-and-drop operations. To assign a server to a particular runlevel, drag its entry from the Services box to the appropriate Runlevel box. To remove it from a particular runlevel, drag its entry out of that Runlevel box to the Trash icon. To start and stop a daemon manually, right-click it and select either the Stop or Start entry from the pop-up menu. Note From the Red Hat Control Panel, you can also run the System V Runlevel Editor, which operates similarly to the KDE System V Init Editor. On Red Hat systems, configuration and startup information is also kept in the /etc/sysconfig directory. Here you will find files containing definitions of system variables used to configure devices such as your keyboard and mouse. These entries were defined for you when you configured your devices during installation. You will also find network definitions as well as scripts for starting and stopping your network connections. A sample of the keyboard file is shown here. /etc/sysconfig/keyboard
KEYBOARDTYPE="pc" KEYTABLE="us"
Several of these files are generated by Red Hat configuration tools such as mouseconfig or netconfig (see 29 for the specific files these tools control). For example, mouseconfig will generate configuration variables for the mouse device name, type, and certain features, placing them in the /etc/sysconfig/mouse file, shown here:
FULLNAME="Generic - 3 Button Mouse (USB)" MOUSETYPE="imps2" XEMU3="no" XMOUSETYPE="IMPS/2"
Other files like hwconf will list all your hardware devices, defining configuration variables such as its class (video, CD-ROM, hard drive, etc.) the bus it uses (PCI, IDE, etc.), its device name (such as hdd or st0), the drivers it uses, and a description of the device. A CD-ROM entry is shown here:
class: CDROM bus: IDE detached: 0 device: hdd driver: ignore desc: "TOSHIBA DVD-ROM SD-M1402"
Several directories are included, such as network-scripts, which list several startup scripts for network connections-such as ifup-ppp, which starts up PPP connections.
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