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Managing Groups Using groupadd, groupmod, and groupdel
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You can also manage groups with the groupadd, groupmod, and groupdel commands. With the groupadd command, you can create new groups. When you add a group to the system, the system places the group's name in the /etc/group file and gives it a group ID number. If shadow security is in place, then changes are made to the /etc/gshadow file. The groupadd command only creates the group category. Users are individually added to the group. In the next example, the groupadd command creates the engines group:
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# groupadd engines
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You can delete a group with the groupdel command. In the next example, the engines group is deleted:
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# groupdel engines
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You can change the name of a group or its ID using the groupmod command. Enter groupmod -g with the new ID number and the group name. To change the name of a group, you use the -n option. Enter groupmod -n with the new name of the group, followed by the current name. In the next example, the engines group has its name changed to trains:
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Disk Quotas
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With disk quotas, you can control how much disk space a particular user makes use of on your system. On your Linux system, unused disk space is held as a common resource that each user can access as they need it. As a user creates more files, they take the space they need from the pool of available disk space. In this sense, all the users are sharing this one resource of unused disk space. However, if one user were to use up all the remaining disk space, then none of the other users would be able to create files or even run programs. To counter this problem, you can create disk quotas on particular users, limiting the amount of available disk space they can use. Note On Linuxconf, you can enable disk quotas and set general controls. To enable quotas for a disk, first select the disk in the Access Local Drive panel under File Systems in the Config panel. Then click the disk's Options panel and click on the User Quota Enabled and Group Quota Enabled check boxes. Once you accept and activate the changes, you can then access the Set Quota Defaults panel under File systems. Here, you can set user and group defaults for disk space and file limits as well as grace periods. Quotas are enabled using the quotacheck and quotaon programs. On Red Hat, they are executed in the /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script, which is run whenever you start up your system. Each partition then needs to be mounted with the quota options, usrquota or grpquota. usrquota enables quota controls and users, and grpquota works for groups. These options are usually placed in the mount entry in the /etc/fstab file for a particular partition. For example, to mount the /dev/hda6 hard disk partition mounted to the /home directory with support for user and group quotas, you would require a mount entry like the following:
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/dev/hda6 /home ext2 defaults,usrquota,grpquota 1 1
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You also need to create quota.user and quota.group files for each partition for which you enable quotas. These are the quota databases used to hold the quota information for each user and group. You can create these files by running the quotacheck command with the -a option or the device name of the file system where you want to enable quotas. The limit you set for a quota can be hard or soft. A hard limit will deny a user the ability to exceed his or her quota, whereas a soft limit will just issue a warning. For the soft limit, you can designate a grace period during which time the user has the chance to reduce his or her disk space below the limit. If the disk space still exceeds the limit after the grace period expires, then the user can be denied access to his or her account. You can set disk quotas using the edquota command or the User Account panels in Linuxconf. On Linuxconf, select a user from the User Accounts listing and then select that user's Disk Quota panel. Here, you can enter the hard and soft limits along with the grace
period. You can also select a default for these limits. The default is set using the Set Quota Defaults panel in the File System menu. There are entries for both group and user soft and hard defaults. Linuxconf will allow you to place limits on both the disk size and the number of files. The edquota command is run from the command line. With it you can access the quota record for a particular user and group, which is maintained in the disk quota database. You can also set default quotas that will be applied to any user or group on the file system for which quotas have not been set. edquota will open the record in your default editor, and you can use your editor to make any changes. To open the record for a particular user, use the -u option and the user name as an argument for edquota (see Table 30-2). The following example opens the disk quota record for the user larisa:
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