FTP and Web Sites ftp.redhat.com
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freshmeat.net linuxapps.com rpmfind.net www.sourceforge.net www.gnome.org apps.kde.com
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http://home.xnet.com/~blatura/linapps.shtml Linux applications and utilities page.
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FTP and Web Sites www.filewatcher.org www.gnu.org www.ximian.com koffice.kde.com www.xdt.com/ar/linux-snd www.linuxvideo.org www.opensound.com metalab.unc.edu happypenguin.org www.linuxgames.com
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Table 31-1: Linux Software Sites Applications Linux FTP site watcher. GNU archive. Ximian Gnome, office applications for Gnome. The KDE KOffice suite of office applications. Linux MIDI and sound pages. The Linux Video and DVD Project, LiViD. Open Sound System drivers. Extensive Linux archive (formerly sunsite.unc.edu). Linux Game Tome. Linux games.
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Quake. www.linuxquake.com Note Red Hat provides many RPM packaged applications as part of its Power Tools collection. Check the powertools directory for your release, or download the powertools disk image. The software packages on RPM sites like Red Hat and rpmfind.net will have the file extension .rpm. RPM packages that contain source code have an extension .src.rpm. Other packages such as those in the form of source code that you will need to compile come in a variety of compressed archives. These will commonly have the extensions .tar.gz or tar.bz2. They are explained in detail later in the chapter. Table 31-2 lists several common file extensions that you will find for the great variety of Linux software packages available to you. See 32 for more details on archives and compression. Table 31-2: Linux Software Package File Extensions File Software package created with the Red Hat Software Package Manager (RPM). Software packages that are source code versions of applications, created with the Red Hat Software Package Manager (RPM). gzip compressed file (use gnunzip to decompress, also z option with tar, as in xvzf). bzip2 compressed file (use bunzip2 to decompress, also j option with tar, as in xvjf). A tar archive file, use tar with xvf to extract. gzip compressed tar archive file. Can use z option with tar, tar xvzf archive. bzip2 compressed tar archive file. Can use j option with tar, tar xvjf archive.
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Extension .rpm .src.rpm .gz .bz2 .tar .tar.gz .tar.bz2
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Extension tar.tz tar.Z .deb
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Table 31-2: Linux Software Package File Extensions File tar archive file compressed with the compress command. File compressed with the compress command (use the decompress command to decompress). Debian Linux package.
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Red Hat Package Manager (RPM)
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Several Linux distributions, including Red Hat, OpenLinux, and SuSE, use RPM to organize Linux software into packages you can automatically install or remove. An RPM software package operates as its own installation program for a software application. A Linux software application often consists of several files that need to be installed in different directories. The program itself is most likely placed in a directory called /usr/bin, online manual files go in another directory, and library files in yet another directory. In addition, the installation may require modification of certain configuration files on your system. The RPM software package performs all these tasks for you. Also, if you later decide you don't want a specific application, you can uninstall packages to remove all the files and configuration information from your system. RPM works similarly to the Windows Install Wizard, automatically installing software, including configuration, documentation, image, sample, and program files, along with any other files an application may use. All are installed in their appropriate directories on your system. RPM maintains a database of installed software, keeping track of all the files installed. This enables you to use RPM also to uninstall software, automatically removing all files that are part of the application. To install and uninstall RPM packages, you can use the rpm command on a shell command line or any available RPM window-based program, such as Kpackage or GnomeRPM. Although you should download RPM packages from your particular distribution, numerous RPM software packages are designed to run on any Linux system. Many of these are located at distribution contrib directories. You can learn more about RPM at its Web site at www.rpm.org. The site contains up-to-date versions for RPM, documentation, and RPM support programs, such as rpm2html and rpm2cpio. rpm2html takes a directory containing RPM packages and generates Web pages listing those packages as links that can be used to download them. rpm2cpio is Perl script to extract RPMs. You can obtain further documentation from the RPM Documentation Project site at www.rpmdp.org. The RPM packages on your CD-ROMs only represent a small portion of the software packages available for Linux. You can download additional software in the form of RPM packages from distribution contribution locations, such as the contrib directory in the Red Hat FTP site at ftp.redhat.com. In addition, these packages are organized into lib5 and lib6 directories. lib5 refers to the packages using the older libraries, whereas lib6 refers to those using the current GNU 2.x libraries. For Red Hat 6.0 and later, you should use the lib6 versions-though many packages still use the lib5 versions, which also work. An extensive repository for RPM packages is also located at http://rpmfind.net/linux/RPM. Packages here are indexed according to distribution, group, and name. It includes packages for every distribution, including Red Hat. From http://rpmfind.net, you can download the rpmfind command that enables you to search for RPM packages, either on your local system
or on the RPM repository at rpmfind.net. You can even use rpmfind to download and update packages. rpmfind detects your system's distribution and lists RPM packages for it. Search results also tell you on what other packages a given RPM can depend. With the -appropos option, you can use more general terms to locate a package, instead of filename patterns. With the --upgrade option, you can download and install newer versions of installed packages. The rpmfind command also sets up a .rpmfind configuration file, where you can specify such features as a download directory, the remote servers to search, and the location of local RPM packages on your system. Note RPM packages with the term noarch are used for architecture-independent packages. This means that they are designed to install on any Linux distribution. Packages without noarch may be distribution dependent, with some designed to install on Red Hat and others for distributions like Caldera and Debian. Your Red Hat distribution CD-ROM included with this book contains an extensive set of applications located in an RPMS directory on the CD-ROM, RedHat/RPMS. You can install or uninstall any of these packages using an rpm command, a GUI RPM utility, or the GMC Gnome desktop. To install a software package from your CD-ROM using the rpm command, it is easier to move first to the RPMS directory and then install the package you want. Be sure to mount the CD-ROM first before you try to access it. You can download additional RPM packages not located on your CD-ROM from the Red Hat FTP site at ftp.redhat.com. Web sites for the particular software you want may also have RPM packages already set up for you for Red Hat. For example, you can obtain the ProFTPD RPM package for Red Hat from ftp.redhat.com, and the current Red Hat or Linuxconf RPM packages from the Linuxconf Web site (see 30). You could place these packages in a directory on your system, and then use either rpm or a GUI RPM utility such as GnomeRPM to install it. Normally, you should always try to use the version of the RPM package set up for your distribution. In many cases, attempting to install an RPM package meant for a different distribution may fail. Popular RPM package managers are listed here: Kpackage GnomeRPM rpm K Desktop RPM package manager GnomeRPM package manager The shell command to manage RPM packages