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Your Linux system is capable of handling any number of storage devices that may be connected to it. You can configure your system to access multiple hard drives, partitions on a hard drive, CD-ROM disks, floppy disks, and even tapes. You can elect to attach these storage components manually or have them automatically mount when you boot. For example, the main partition holding your Linux system programs is automatically attached whenever you boot, whereas a floppy disk must be manually attached when you put one in your floppy drive. You can configure this access to different storage devices either by manually editing configuration files, such as /etc/fstab, or by using a file system configuration tool such as the Linuxconf's fsconf. You can use administration tools such as Linuxconf or Webmin to configure the file system.
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Although all the files in your Linux system are connected into one overall directory tree, the files themselves reside on storage devices such as hard drives or CD-ROMs. The Linux files on a particular storage device are organized into what is referred to as a file system. Your Linux directory tree may encompass several file systems, each on different storage devices. On a hard drive with several partitions, you would have a file system for each partition. The files themselves are organized into one seamless tree of directories, beginning from the root directory. Although the root may be located in a file system on a hard drive partition, a pathname leads directly to files located on the file system for your CD-ROM. The files in a file system remain separate from your directory tree until you specifically connect them to it. A file system has its files organized into its own directory tree. You can think of this as a subtree that must be attached to the main directory tree. For example, a floppy disk with Linux files has its own tree of directories. You need to attach this subtree to the main tree on your hard drive partition. Until they are attached, you cannot access the files on your floppy disk. Attaching a file system on a storage device to your main directory tree is called mounting the device. The mount operation attaches the directory tree on the storage device to a directory you specify. You can then change to that directory and access those files. The directory in the file structure to which the new file system is attached is referred to as the mountpoint. For example, to access files on a CD-ROM, first you have to mount the CD-ROM. Currently, Linux systems have several ways to mount a file system. You can use Linuxconf to select and mount a file system easily. If you are using either Gnome or the K Desktop, you can use special desktop icons to mount a file system. From a shell command line, you can use the mount command. Mounting file systems can only be done as the root user. This is a system administration task and cannot be performed by a regular user. To mount a file system, be sure to log in as the root user (or use the su operation). As the root user, you can, however, make a particular device like a CD-ROM user mountable. In this way, any user could put in a CD-ROM and mount it. You could do the same for a floppy drive. Tip On Gnome you can use the Disk Management tool on the System menu to mount and unmount file systems, including floppy disks and CD-ROMs. On KDE you can use the KDiskFree utility, which also lists your mountable file as well as their disk usage.
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For a file system to be accessible, it must be mounted. Even the file system on your hard disk partition must be mounted with a mount command. When you install your Linux system and create the Linux partition on your hard drive, however, your system is automatically configured to mount your main file system whenever it starts. Floppy disks and CD-ROMs must be explicitly mounted. Remember, when you mount a CD-ROM or floppy disk, you cannot then simply remove it to put in another one. You first have to unmount it. In fact, the CD-ROM drive remains locked until you unmount it. Once you unmount a CD-ROM, you can then take it out and put in another one, which you then must mount before you can access it. When changing several CD-ROMs or floppy disks, you are continually mounting and unmounting them. The file systems on each storage device are formatted to take up a specified amount of space. For example, you may have formatted your hard drive partition to take up 3GB. Files installed or created on that file system take up part of the space, while the remainder is available for new files and directories. To find out how much space you have free on a file system, you can use the df command or, on Gnome, you can use either the Gnome System Monitor (see Figure 32-1) or the Gnome Disk Free utility. For the Gnome System Manger, click the Filesystems tab to display a bar graph of the free space on your file systems. Gnome DiskFree displays a list of meters showing how much space is used on each partition and how much space you have left. KDiskFree, a KDE utility, provides similar information.
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Figure 32-1: Gnome System Monitor, Filesystems tab The df command lists all your file systems by their device names, how much memory they take up, and the percentage of the memory used, as well as where they are mounted. With the -h option, it displays information in a more readable format. The df command is also a safe way to obtain a listing of all your partitions, instead of using fdisk. df only shows mounted partitions, however, whereas fdisk shows all partitions.
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$ df Filesystem 1024-blocks Used Available Capacity Mounted on /dev/hda3 297635 169499 112764 60% / /dev/hda1 205380 182320 23060 89% /mnt/dos /dev/hdc 637986 637986 0 100% /mnt/cdrom
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Note In earlier Red Hat versions, fsck was also used to recover file systems after disk crashes or reset-button reboots. With release 7.2, Red Hat introduced journaling capabilities
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with the ext3 file system. Journaling provides for fast and effective recovery in case of disk crashes, instead of using fsck or e2fsck. You can also use df to tell you to what file system a given directory belongs. Enter df with the directory name or df. for the current directory.
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$ df . Filesystem 1024-blocks Used Available Capacity Mounted on /dev/hda3 297635 169499 112764 60% /
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To make sure nothing is wrong with a given file system, you can use the fsck command to check it. However, be sure that the file system is unmounted. fsck should not be used on a mounted file system. To use fsck, enter fsck and the device name that references the file system. fsck is run automatically on all your file systems when you boot up your system, so your file systems are continually checked. Table 32-1 lists the fsck options. The following examples check the disk in the floppy drive and the primary hard drive:
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