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Option file-system -A -V
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Table 32-1: Thefsck Options for Checking and Repairing File Systems Description Specifies the file system to be checked. Use file system's device name, such as /dev/hda3. Checks all file systems listed in /etc/fstab file. Verbose mode. List actions that fsck takes. Specifies the type of file system to be checked. Automatically repairs any problems. Lists the names of all files in the file system. Asks for confirmation before repairing file system.
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-t file-system-type -a -l -r
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Lists superblock before checking file system. -s Note Instead of using fsck, you can use fse2ck to check standard Linux partitions (ext2).
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Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
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Linux organizes its files and directories into one overall interconnected tree, beginning from the root directory and extending down to system and user directories (see 11). The organization and layout for the system directories is determined by the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS). The FHS provides a standardized layout that all Linux distributions should following setting up their system directories. For example, there must be an /etc directory to hold configuration files and a /dev directory for device files. You can find out more about FHS, including the official documentation, at The current release is FHS 2.1, which is the successor to FSSTND 1.2, a precursor to FHS. Linux distributions, developers, and administrators all follow the FHS to provide a consistent organization to the Linux file system. Linux uses a number of specifically named directories for specialized administration tasks. All these directories are directories at the very top level of your main Linux file system, the file system root directory represented by a single slash, /. For example, the /dev directory
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holds device files, the /etc directory holds configuration files, and the /home directory holds the user home directories and all their user files. You only have access to these directories and files as the system administrator. You need to log in as the root user, placing you in a special root user administrative directory called /root. From here, you can access any directory on the Linux file system, both administrative and user. The directories held in the root directory, /, are listed in Table 32-2, along with other useful subdirectories. Ones that you may commonly access as an administrator are the /etc directory that holds configuration files, the /dev directory that holds device files, and the /var directory that holds server data files for DNS, Web, mail, and FTP servers along with system logs and scheduled tasks. For managing different versions of the kernel, you may need to access the /boot and /lib/modules directories. The /boot directory will hold the kernel image files for any new kernels you install, and the /lib/modules directory will hold modules for your different kernels. Table 32-2: Linux File System Directories Function Begins the file system structure-called the root. Holds the kernel image files and modules loaded when your system boots up. Contains users' home directories. Holds administration level commands and any used by the root user. Holds file interfaces for devices such as the terminal and printer. Holds system configuration files and any other system files. Holds system configuration files for applications in /opt. Holds system configuration files for the X Window System and its applications. Holds the essential user commands and utility programs. Holds essential shared libraries and kernel modules. Holds the kernel modules. Used to hold directories for mounting file systems like CD-ROMs or floppy disks that are mounted only temporarily. Holds added software applications (for example, KDE on some distributions). Process directory, a memory-resident directory containing files used to provide information about the system. Holds temporary files. Holds those files and commands used by the system; this directory breaks down into several subdirectories. Holds files that vary, such as mailbox files. On Red Hat, these also hold Web and FTP server data files.
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Directory / /boot /home /sbin /dev /etc /etc/opt /etc/X11 /bin /lib /lib/modules /mnt /opt /proc /tmp /usr /var
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The /usr directory contains a multitude of important subdirectories used to support users, providing applications, libraries, and documentation (see Table 32-3). /usr/bin holds
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numerous user-accessible applications and utilities. /usr/sbin hold user-accessible administrative utilities. The /usr/share directory holds architecture-independent data that includes an extensive number of subdirectories, including those for the documentation such as Man, info, and doc files. Table 32-3: /usr Directories Description Holds most user commands and utility programs. Holds nonessential administrative applications. Holds libraries for applications, programming languages, desktops, etc. Games and educational programs. C programming language header files (.h). Holds Linux documentation. Directory for locally installed software. Architecture independent data such as documentation like Man and info pages. Holds source code, including the kernel source codes. X Window System-based applications and libraries.
Directory /usr/bin /usr/sbin /usr/lib /usr/games /usr/include /usr/doc /usr/local /usr/share /usr/src /usr/X11R6
The /var directories are designed to hold data that changes with the normal operation of the Linux system (see Table 32-4). For example, spool files for documents that you are printing are kept here. A spool file is created as a temporary printing file and is removed after printing. Other files, like system log files, are changed constantly. Table 32-4: /var Directories Description Processes accounting logs. Application cache data for Man pages, Web proxy data, fonts, or application-specific data. System crash dumps. Varying games data. Holds state information for particular applications. Used for data that changes for programs installed in /usr/local. Holds lock files that indicate when a particular program or file is in use. Holds log files such as /var/log/messages that contain all kernel and system program messages. User mailbox files. Variable data for applications installed in /opt. Information about system's running processes. Holds application's spool data such as that for mail, news, and
Directory /var/account /var/cache /var/crash /var/games /var/lib /var/local /var/lock /var/log /var/mail /var/opt /var/run /var/spool
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