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You can back up and restore your system with the dump and restore utilities. dump can back up your entire system or perform incremental backups, saving only those files that have changed since the last backup. dump supports several options for managing the backup operation, such as specifying the size and length of storage media (see Table 32-16). Table 32-16: dump Options Description Specify the dump level. A dump level 0 is a full backup, copying the entire file system (see also the -h option). dump level numbers above 0 perform incremental backups, copying all new or modified files new in the file system since the last backup at a lower level. The default level is 9. Lets you specify the number of blocks in a volume, overriding the end-of-media detection or length and density calculations that dump normally uses for multivolume dumps.
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Table 32-16: dump Options Description Lets dump bypass any tape length calculations and write until an endof-media indication is detected. Recommended for most modern tape drives, and is the default. Lets you specify the number of kilobytes per dump record. With this option, you can create larger blocks, speeding up backups. Specify the density for a tape in bits per inch (default is 1,600 BPI). Files that are tagged with a user's "nodump"' flag will not be backed up at or above this specified level. The default is 1, which will not back up the tagged files in incremental backups. Backs up the file system to the specified file or device. This can be a file or tape drive. You can specify multiple filenames, separated by commas. A remote device or file can be referenced with a preceding hostname, hostname:file. Use Kerberos authentication to talk to remote tape servers. Implements a multivolume backup, where the file written to is treated as a prefix and the suffix consisting of a numbered sequence from 001 is used for each succeeding file, file001, file 002, etc. Useful when backup files need to be greater than the Linux ext3 2GB file size limit. Notify operators should a backup need operator attention. Specify the length of a tape in feet. dump will prompt for a new tape when the length is reached. Estimate the amount of space needed to perform a backup. Write an entry for a successful update in the /etc/dumpdates file. Detects and displays the file systems that need to be backed up. This information is taken from the /etc/dumpdates and /etc/fstab files. Detects and displays the file systems that need to be backed up based only on information in /etc/fstab.
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The dump utility uses dump levels to determine to what degree you want your system backed up. A dump level of 0 will copy file systems in their entirety. The remaining dump levels perform incremental backups, only backing up files and directories that have been created or modified since the last lower-level backup. A dump level of 1 will only back up files that have changed since the last level 0 backup. The dump level 2, in turn, will only back up files that have changed since the last level 1 backup (or 0 if there is no level 1), and so on up to dump level 9. You could run an initial complete backup at dump level 0 to back up your entire system, and then run incremental backups at certain later dates, having to back up only the changes since the full backup. Using dump levels, you can devise certain strategies for backup of a file system. It is important to keep in mind that an incremental backup is run on changes from the last lowerlevel backup. For example, if the last backup was 6 and the next backup was 8, then the level 8 would back up everything from the level 6 backup. The sequence of the backups is
important. If there were three backups with levels 3, then 6, and then 5, the level 5 backup would take everything from the level 3 backup, not stopping at level 6. Level 3 is the nextlower-level backup for level 5, in this case. This can make for some complex incremental backup strategies. For example, If you want each succeeding incremental backup to include all the changes from the preceding incremental backups, you could run the backups in descending dump level order. Given a backup sequence of 7, 6, and 5, with 0 as the initial full backup, then 6 would include all the changes to 7, because its next lower level is 0. Then, 5 would include all the changes for 7 and 6, also because its next lower level is 0, making all the changes since the level 0 full backup. A simpler way to implement this is to make the incremental levels all the same. Given an initial level of 0, and then two backups both with level 1, the last level 1 would include all the changes from the backup with level 0, since level 0 is the next lower level-not the previous level 1 backup. Backups are recorded in the /etc/dumpdates file. This file will list all the previous backups specifying the file system they were performed on, the dates they were performed, and the dump level used. You can use this information to restore files from a specified backup. Recall that the /etc/fstab file records the dump level as well as the recommended backup frequency for each file system. With the -W option, dump will analyze both the /etc/dumpdates and /etc/fstab files to determine which file systems need to be backed up. The dump command with -w option just uses /etc/fstab to report the file systems ready for backup. The dump command takes as its arguments the dump level, the device it is storing the backup on, and the device name of the file system that is being backed up. If the storage medium (such as a tape) is too small to accommodate the backup, dump will pause and let you insert another. dump supports backups on multiple volumes. The u options will record the backup in the /etc/dumpdates file. In the following example, an entire backup (dump level 0) is performed on the file system on the /dev/hda3 hard disk partition. The backup is stored on a tape device, /dev/tape.
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