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The device type can be either b, c, p, or u. As already mentioned, the b indicates a block device, and c is for a character device. The u is for an unbuffered character device, and the p is for a FIFO device. Devices of the same type often have the same name; for example, serial interfaces all have the name: ttyS. Devices of the same type are then uniquely identified by a number attached to the name. This number has two components: the major number and the minor number. Devices may further have the same major number, but if so, the minor number is always different. This major and minor structure is designed to deal with situations in which several devices may be dependent on one larger device, such as several modems connected to the same I/O card. All would have the same major number that would reference the card, but each modem would have a unique minor number. Both the minor and major numbers are required for block and character devices (b, c, and u). They are not used for FIFO devices, however. For example, Linux systems usually provide device files for three parallel ports (lp0 2). If you need more, you can use the mknod command to create a new one. Printer devices are character devices and must be owned by the root and daemon. The permissions for printer devices are read and write for the owner and the group, 660 (see 12 for a discussion of file permissions). The major device number is set to 6, while the minor device number is set to the port number of the printer, such as 0 for LPT1 and 1 for LPT2. Once the device is created, you use chown to change its ownership to root.daemon. In the next example, a parallel printer device is made on a fourth parallel port, /dev/lp3. The -m option specifies the permissions in this case, 660. The device is a character device, as indicated by the c argument following the device name. The major number is 6, and the minor number is 3. If you were making a device at /dev/lp4, the major number would still be 6, but the minor number would be 4. Once the device is made, the chown command then changes the ownership of the parallel printer device to root.daemon. Be sure to check if a spool directory has been created for your device. If not, you need to make one.
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# mknod -m 660 /dev/lp3 c 6 3
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# chown root.daemon /dev/lp3
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Valid device names along with their major and minor numbers are listed in the devices.txt file located in the documentation directory for the kernel source code, /usr/src/linux. When creating a device, you use the major and minor numbers as well as the device name prefix for the particular kind of device you are creating. Most of these devices are already created for you and are listed in the /etc/dev directory.
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Device Information: /proc
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The /proc file system (see 32) maintains special information files for your devices. The /proc/devices file lists all your installed character and block devices along with their major numbers. IRQs, DMAs, and I/O ports currently used for devices are listed in the interrupts, dma, and ioports files, respectively. Certain files list information covering several devices, such as pci, which lists all your PCI devices, and sound, which lists all your sound devices. The sound file will list detailed information about your sound card. Several subdirectories, such as net, ide, and scsi, contain information files for different devices. Table 33-2 lists several device-related /proc files (see 32 for other entries). Table 33-2: /Proc Device Information Files Description List of the device drivers configured for the currently running kernel Displays the DMA channels currently used Displays the IRQs (interrupts) in use Shows the I/O ports in use Lists PCI devices Lists sound devices Directory for SCSI devices Directory for IDE devices Directory for network devices
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File /proc/devices /proc/dma /proc/interrupts /proc/ioports /proc/pci /proc/sound /proc/scsi /proc/ide /proc/net
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