asp.net scan barcode android 34: Kernel Administration in Software

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34: Kernel Administration
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The kernel is the core of the operating system, performing core tasks like managing memory and disk access, as well as interfacing with the hardware that makes up your system. For example, the kernel makes possible such standard Linux features as multitasking, which allows several users to work on the same system. It also handles communications with devices like your CD-ROM or hard disk. Users send requests for access to these devices through the kernel, which then handles the lower-level task of actually sending instructions to a device. Given the great variety of devices available, the system will vary in the kind of devices connect to a Linux system. These devices are automatically detected, and the kernel is appropriately configured when Linux is installed. However, if you add a new device, you may have to enable support for it in the kernel. This would involve creating a modified version of the kernel, often referred to as building or compiling the kernel. In addition, new versions of the kernel are continuously made available that will provide improved support for your devices, as well as a smoother running system. These you can easily download and install on your system. This chapter covers how you can download and install new kernels, as well as modify your current one. The version number for a Linux kernel consists of three segments: the major, minor, and revision numbers. The major number increments with major changes in the kernel. The minor number indicates stability. Even numbers are used for stable releases, whereas odd numbers are reserved for development releases, which may be unstable. New features first appear in
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the development versions. If stability is a concern, waiting for the stable version is best. The revision number refers to the corrected versions. As bugs are discovered and corrected, new revisions of a kernel are released. A development kernel may have numerous revisions. For example, kernel 2.4.7 has a major number of 2 and a minor number of 4, with a revision number of 7. On Red Hat systems, another number is added that refers to a Red Hat specific set of patches applied to the kernel. For Red Hat 7.2, this is 2.4.7-10, with 10 being the patch number. Currently, the newest kernel is 2.4.12, which also has a major number of 2 and a minor number of 4, but a revision number of 12. This is the most recent stable release of the Linux kernel. On Red Hat, which supports RPM packages, you can use an RPM query to learn what version is installed, as shown here:
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rpm -q kernel
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Note Unless you are experimenting with kernel development, you should always install a stable version of the kernel. The current stable version is 2.4, whereas 2.5 is the development version. The Linux kernel is being worked on constantly, with new versions released when they are ready. Red Hat includes the most up-to-date kernel in its releases. Linux kernels are kept at www.kernel.org. Also, RPM packages for a new kernel often are available at distribution update sites, such as ftp.redhat.com. One reason you may need to upgrade your kernel is to provide support for new hardware or for features not supported by the distribution's version. For example, you may need support for a new device not provided in the distribution's version of the kernel. Certain features may not be included in a distribution's version because they are considered experimental or a security risk. Note You probably don't need to install a new kernel only to add support for a new device. Kernels provide most device support in the form of modules, of which only those needed are installed with the kernel. Most likely your current kernel has the module you need. You simply have to install it. For this task, see the "Installing New Modules for the Kernel" section in 33. You can learn more about the Linux kernel from www.kernel.org, the official repository for the current Linux kernels. The most current source code, as well as documentation, is here. For Red Hat systems, www.redhat.com also provides online documentation for installing and compiling the kernel on its systems. Several Linux HOW-TOs also exist on the subject. For Red Hat, consult the Red Hat Customization Guide for details on installing and compiling a kernel. The kernel source code software packages also include extensive documentation. Kernel source code files are always installed in the /usr/src/linux directory. In this directory, you can find a subdirectory named Documentation, which contains an extensive set of files and directories documenting kernel features, modules, and commands. See the following list of kernel resources. Site www.kernel.org linuxhq.com Description The official Linux kernel Web site. All new kernels originate from here. Linux headquarters, kernel sources, and patches.
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ftp.redhat.com/pub/linux/updates/version/ Location of Red Hat packages for recent kernels, along with other updates. version is the number of your Red Hat distribution.
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