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An entry in the /etc/exports file specifies the file system to be exported and the hosts on the network that can access it. For the file system, enter its mountpoint, the directory to which it was mounted on the host system. This is followed by a list of hosts that can access this file system along with options to control that access. A comma-separated list of export options placed within a set of parentheses may follow each host. For example, you might want to give one host read-only access and another read and write access. If the options are preceded by an * symbol, they are applied to any host. A list of options is provided in Table 37-1. The format of an entry in the /etc/exports file is shown here:
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General Option secure insecure ro rw sync async no_wdelay wdelay hide
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Table 37-1: The /etc/exports Options Description Requires that request originate on secure ports, those less than 1024. This is on by default. Turns off the secure option. Allows only read-only access. This is the default. Allows read-write access. Perform all writes when requested. This is the default. Perform all writes when the server is ready. Perform writes immediately, not checking to see if they are related. Check to see if writes are related, and, if so, wait to perform them together. Can degrade performance. This is the default. Automatically hide an exported directory that is the subdirectory of another exported directory. The subdirectory has to be explicitly mounted to be accessed. Mounting the parent directory does not allow access. This is the default. Do not hide an exported directory that is the subdirectory of another exported directory (opposite of hide). Only works for single hosts and can be unreliable. Check parent directories in a file system to validate an exported subdirectory. This is the default. Do not check parent directories in a file system to validate an exported subdirectory. Do not require authentication of locking requests. Used for older NFS versions. Maps all uids and gids to the anonymous user. Useful for NFSexported public FTP directories, news spool directories, and so forth. The opposite option to all_squash, and is the default setting. Maps requests from remote root user to the anonymous uid/gid. This is the default. Turns off root squashing. Allows the root user to access as the remote root. Set explicitly the uid and gid of the anonymous account used for all_squash and root_squash options. The defaults are nobody and nogroup.
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subtree_check no_subtree_check insecure_locks User ID Mapping all_squash
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You can have several host entries for the same directory, each with access to that directory:
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directory-pathname host(options) host(options) host(options)
You have a great deal of flexibility when specifying hosts. For hosts within your domain you can just use the hostname, whereas for those outside you need to use a fully qualified domain name. You could also just use the host's IP address. Instead of just a single host, you can reference all the hosts within a specific domain, allowing access by an entire network. A simple way to do this is to use the * for the host segment, followed by the domain name for the network, such as *.mytrek.com for all the hosts in the mytrek.com network. Instead of domain names, you could use IP network addresses using a CNDR format where you specify the netmask to indicate a range of IP addresses. You can also use an NIS netgroup name to reference a collection of hosts. The NIS netgroup name is preceded by an @ sign.
directory directory directory directory directory host(options) *(options) *.domain(options) 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0(options) @netgroup(options)
Options in /etc/exports operate as permissions to control access to exported directories. Readonly access is set with the ro option, and read-write with the rw option. The snyc and async options specify whether a write operation is performed immediately (sync) or when the server is ready to handle it (async). By default, write requests are checked to see if they are related, and, if so, are written together (wdelay). This can degrade performance. You can override this default with no_wdelay and have writes executed as they are requested. If two directories are exported, where one is the subdirectory of another, then the subdirectory is not accessible unless it is explicitly mounted (hide). In other words, mounting the parent directory does not make the subdirectory accessible. The subdirectory remains hidden until also mounted. You can overcome this restriction with the no_hide option (though this can cause problems with some file systems). If an exported directory is actually a subdirectory in a larger file system, its parent directories are checked to make sure that the subdirectory is the valid directory (subtree_check). This option works well with read-only file systems, but can cause problems for write-enabled file systems, where filenames and directories can be changed. You can cancel this check with the no_subtree_check option. Along with general options, there are also options that apply to user-level access. As a security measure, the client's root user is treated as an anonymous user by the NFS server. This is known as squashing the user. In the case of the client root user, squashing prevents the client from attempting to appear as the NFS server's root user. Should you want a particular client's root user to have root-level control over the NFS server, you can specify the no_root_squash option. To prevent any client user from attempting to appear as a user on the NFS server, you can classify them as anonymous users (the all_squash option). Such anonymous users would only have access to directories and files that are part of the anonymous group. Normally, if a user on a client system has a user account on the NFS server, that user can mount and access his or her files on the NFS server. However, NFS requires the User ID for the user be the same on both systems. If this is not the case, he or she is considered two different users. To overcome this problem, you could use an NIS service, maintaining User ID information in just one place, the NIS password file (see the following section for information on NIS). Examples of entries in an /etc/exports file are shown here. Read-only access is given to all hosts to the file system mounted on the /pub directory, a common name used for public
access. Users, however, are treated as anonymous users (all_squash). Read and write access is given to the lizard.mytrek.com computer for the file system mounted on the /home/foodstuff directory. The next entry would allow access by rabbit.mytrek.com to the NFS server's CD-ROM. The last entry allows anyone secure access to /home/richlp. /etc/exports
/pub /home/foodstuff /mnt/cdrom /home/richlp *(ro,insecure,all_squash) lizard.mytrek.com(rw) rabbit.mytrek.com(ro) *(secure)
Note Instead of editing the /etc/exports file directly, you can use Linuxconf's Exported File Systems panel in the Server Tasks list under the Networking heading in Config. Click the Add button to add a new entry. Each time your system starts up the NFS server (usually when the system starts up), the /etc/exports file will be read, and those directories specified will be exported. When a directory is exported, an entry for it is made in the /var/lib/nfs/xtab file. It is this file that NFS reads and uses to perform the actual exports. Entries are read from /etc/exports and corresponding entries made in /var/lib/nfs/xtab. The xtab file maintains the list of actual exports. If you want to export added entries in the /etc/exports file immediately, without rebooting, you can use the exportfs command with the a option. It is helpful to add the v option to display the actions that NFS is taking. Use the same options to effect any changes you make to the /etc/exports file.
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