# ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.1 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0 in Software

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# ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.1 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0
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Option Interface aftype up down -arp -trailers -allmulti metric n mtu n dstaddr address netmask address broadcast address point-topoint address
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Table 39-8: The ifconfig Options Description Name of the network interface, such as eth0 for the first Ethernet device or ppp0 for the first PPP device (modem) Address family for decoding protocol addresses; default is inet, currently used by Linux Activates an interface; implied if IP address is specified Deactivates an interface Turns ARP on or off; preceding -turns it off Turns on or off trailers in Ethernet frames; preceding - turns it off Turns on or off the promiscuous mode; preceding - turns it offthis allows network monitoring Cost for interface routing (not currently supported) Maximum number of bytes that can be sent on this interface per transmission Destination IP address on a point-to-point connection IP network mask; preceding - turns it off Broadcast address; preceding - turns it off Point-to-point mode for interface; if address is included, it is assigned to remote system
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Option hw Address
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Table 39-8: The ifconfig Options Description Sets hardware address of interface IP address assigned to interface
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Once you configure your interface, you can use ifconfig with the up option to activate it and with the down option to deactivate it. If you specify an IP address in an ifconfig operation, as in the previous example, the up option is implied.
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# ifconfig eth0 up
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Point-to-point interfaces such as Parallel IP (PLIP), Serial Line IP (SLIP), and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) require you to include the pointopoint option. A PLIP interface name is identified with the name plip with an attached number. For example, plip0 is the first PLIP interface. SLIP interfaces use slip0. PPP interfaces start with ppp0. Point-to-point interfaces are those that usually operate between only two hosts, such as two computers connected over a modem. When you specify the pointopoint option, you need to include the IP address of the host. In the next example, a PLIP interface is configured that connects the computer at IP address 192.168.1.72 with one at 204.166.254.14. If domain addresses were listed for these systems in /etc/hosts, those domain names could be used in place of the IP addresses.
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# ifconfig plip0 192.168.1.72 pointopoint 204.166.254.14
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If you need to, you can also use ifconfig to configure your loopback device. The name of the loopback device is lo, and its IP address is the special address 127.0.0.1. The following example shows the configuration:
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# ifconfig lo 127.0.0.1
The ifconfig command is useful for checking on the status of an interface. If you enter the ifconfig command, along with the name of the interface, information about that interface is displayed:
# ifconfig eth0
To see if your loopback interface is configured, you can use ifconfig with the loopback interface name, lo:
# ifconfig lo lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Bcast:127.255.255.255 Mask:255.0.0.0 UP BROADCAST LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:2000 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 TX packets:12 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0
Routing
A packet that is part of a transmission takes a certain route to reach its destination. On a large network, packets are transmitted from one computer to another until the destination computer is reached. The route determines where the process starts and to what computer your system
needs to send the packet for it to reach its destination. On small networks, routing may be static that is, the route from one system to another is fixed. One system knows how to reach another, moving through fixed paths. On larger networks and on the Internet, however, routing is dynamic. Your system knows the first computer to send its packet off to, and then that computer takes the packet from there, passing it on to another computer, which then determines where to pass it on. For dynamic routing, your system needs to know little. Static routing, however, can become complex because you have to keep track of all the network connections. Your routes are listed in your routing table in the /proc/net/route file. To display the routing table, enter route with no arguments (the netstat -r command will also display the routing table):
# route Kernel routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface loopback * 255.0.0.0 U 0 0 12 lo pango1.train.com * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
Each entry in the routing table has several fields, providing information such as the route destination and the type of interface used. The different fields are listed in the following table: Field Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Window Use Iface Description Destination IP address of the route IP address or hostname of the gateway the route uses; * indicates no gateway is used The netmask for the route Type of route: U = up, H = host, G = gateway, D = dynamic, M = modified Metric cost of route Number of routes that depend on this one TCP window for AX.25 networks Number of times used Type of interface this route uses
You should have at least one entry in the routing table for the loopback interface. If not, you must route the loopback interface using the route command. The IP address for an interface has to be added to the routing table before you can use that interface. You add an address with the route command and the add option:
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