asp net read barcode from image Figure 40-4: Kerberos authentication in Software

Maker QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Software Figure 40-4: Kerberos authentication

Figure 40-4: Kerberos authentication
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Accessing a service with Kerberos involves the following steps: 1. First the user has to be validated by the authentication server and granted access to the ticket granting server with a ticket access key. The user does this by issuing the kinit command, which will ask you enter your Kerberos username and then send it on to the authentication server (the Kerberos username is usually the same as your username).
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2. The AS generates a ticket granting ticket with which to access the ticket granting server. This ticket will include a session key that will be used to let you access the TGS server. The TGT is sent back to you encrypted with your user key (password). 3. The kinit program then prompts you to enter your Kerberos password, which it then uses to decrypt the TGT. 4. Now you can use a client program such as a mail client program to access the mail server, for instance. When you do so, the TGT is used to access the TGS server, which then will generate a ticket for accessing the mail server. The TGS will generate a new session key for use with just the mail server. This will be provided in the ticket sent to you for accessing the mail server. In effect, there is a TGT sessions key used for accessing the TGS server, and a mail session key used for accessing the mail server. The ticket for the mail server is sent to you encrypted with the TGS session key. 5. The client then uses the mail ticket received from the TGS server to access the mail server. 6. If you want to use another service such as FTP, when your FTP client sends a request to the TGS server for a ticket, the TGS server will automatically obtain authorization from the authentication server and issue an FTP ticket with an FTP session key. This kind of support remains in effect for a limited period of time, usually several hours, after which you again have to use kinit to undergo the authentication process and access the TGS server. Installing and configuring a Kerberos server can be a complex process. Carefully check the documentation for installing the current versions. Some of the key areas are listed here. In the Kerberos configuration file, krb5.conf, you can set such features as the encryption method used and the database name. When installing Kerberos, be sure to carefully follow the instructions for providing administrative access. The /etc/services file should contain a listing of all Kerberized services. These are services such as kftp or klogin that provide Kerberos FTP and login services. To run Kerberos, you start the Kerberos server with the krb5kdc and kadmin commands. Note On Gnome, you can use the krb5 tool to manage Kerberos tickets, and the gkadmin tool to manage Kerberos realms. These are part of the gnome-kerberos package on your Red Hat distribution. Setting up a particular service to use Kerberos (known as Kerberizing) can be a complicated process. A Kerberized service needs to check the user's identity and credentials, check for a ticket for the service, and, if one is not present, obtain one. Once the service is set up, use of Kerberized services is nearly transparent to the user. Tickets are automatically issued and authentication carried out without any extra effort by the user. Note The Red Hat Reference Manual provides detailed instructions on setting up Kerberos
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A shell program combines Linux commands in such a way as to perform a specific task. The Linux shell provides you with many programming tools with which to create shell programs. You can define variables and assign values to them. You can also define variables in a script file and have a user interactively enter values for them when the script is executed. There are loop and conditional control structures that repeat Linux commands or make decisions on which commands you want to execute. You can also construct expressions that perform arithmetic or comparison operations. All these programming tools operate like those found in other programming languages. You can combine shell variables, control structures, expressions, and Linux commands to form a shell program. Usually, the instructions making up a shell program are entered into a script file that can then be executed. You can create this script file using any standard editor. To run the shell program, you then execute its script file. You can even distribute your program among several script files, one of which will contain instructions to execute others. You can think of variables, expressions, and control structures as tools you use to bring together several Linux commands into one operation. In this sense, a shell program is a new, complex Linux command that you have created. The BASH, TCSH, and Z shells that are supported on Linux distributions each have their own shell programming language with slightly different syntax. This chapter discusses BASH shell programming. Table 1 lists several commonly used BASH shell commands discussed throughout this chapter and previously in 11. Table 1: BASH: Shell Commands and Arguments BASH Shell Commands Effect break continue echo eval exec exit export var history let "expression" Exits from for, while, or until loop Skips remaining commands in loop and continues with next iteration Displays values -n eliminates output of new line Executes the command line Executes command in place of current process; does not generate a new subshell, but uses the current one Exits from the current shell Generates a copy of var variable for each new subshell (callby-value) Lists recent history events Evaluates an arithmetic, relational, or assignment expression using operators listed in Table 41-3. The expression must be quoted
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Table 1: BASH: Shell Commands and Arguments BASH Shell Commands Effect read return set Reads a line from the standard input Exits from a function Assigns new values for these arguments (when used with command line arguments); lists all defined variables (when used alone) Moves each command line argument to the left so that the number used to reference it is one less than before; argument $3 would then be referenced by $2, and so on; $1 is lost Compares two arguments; used as the Linux command tested in control structures test 2 -eq $count [ 2 -eq $count ] Undefines a variable Name of Linux command The nth command line argument beginning from 1, $1 $n; you can use set to change them All the command line arguments beginning from 1; you can use set to change them The command line arguments individually quoted The count of the command line arguments The PID number, process ID, of the current process The PID number of the most recent background job The exit status of the last Linux command executed
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