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In Perl, you create an array by assigning it a list of values. A list in Perl consists of a set of values encased in parentheses and separated by colons. The following example is a list of four values:
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( 23, 41, 92, 7)
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You assign this list to the array you wish to create, preceding the array name with an @ sign. This assignment will initialize the array sequentially, beginning with the first value in the list:
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@mynums = (23, 41, 92, 7);
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Once the array has been created, you can reference its individual elements. The elements start from 0, not 1. The mynums array has four elements, numbered from 0 to 3. You can reference individual elements using an index number encased within brackets. [0] references the first element, and [2] references the third element. The following example prints out the first element and then the fourth element. Notice that the array name is prefixed with a $.
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print $mynums[0] ; print $mynums[2] ;
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You can change the value of any element in the array by assigning it a new value. Notice that you use a $, not an @ sign, preceding an individual array element. The @ sign references the entire array and is used when you are assigning whole lists of values to it. The $ sign references a particular element, which is essentially a variable.
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$mynums[2] = 40;
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There is no limit to the number of elements in the array. You can add more by simply referencing a new element and assigning it a value. The following assignment will add a fifth element to the mynums array:
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$mynums[4] = 63;
Each array will have a special variable that consists of a # and the name of the array. This variable is the number of elements currently in the array. For example, #mynums holds the number of elements in the mynums array. The following example prints out the number of elements. Notice the preceding $.
print "$#mynums";
When assigning a list to an array, the values in a list do not have to be of the same type. You can have numbers, strings, and even variables in a list. Similarly, elements of the array do not have to be of the same type. One element could be numeric, and another a string. In the next example, the list with varied elements is assigned to the myvar array:
@myvar = ( "aleina", 11, 4.5, "a new car");
You can reference the entire set of elements in an array as just one list of values. To do this, you use the array name prefixed by the @ sign. The following example will output all the values in the mynums array:
print @mynums;
The @ is used here instead of the $, because the array name is not a simple variable. It is considered a list of values. Only the individual elements are variables. This means that to just reference all the values in an array, you use the @ sign, not the $. This is even true when you want to assign one array to another. In the next example, the values of each element in mynums are assigned to corresponding elements in newnums. Notice the @ used for mynums. You can think of @mynums as evaluating to a list of the values in the mynums array, and this list being then assigned to newnums.
@newnums = @mynums;
Perl Control Structures
Perl has a set of control structures similar to those used in the Gawk, TCSH shell, and C programming languages. Perl has loops with which you can repeat commands, and conditions that allow you to choose among specified commands. For the test expressions, there are two different sets of operators for use with strings and numeric values. Table 2 lists the numeric relational operators, and Table 3 lists the string operators. You can also use pattern operations that allow the use of regular expressions. Table 4 lists the Perl control structures with their syntax. Table 3: String: , Logical, File, and Assignment Operators String Comparisons Function gt lt ge le eq ne Logical Operations expression && expression expression and expression The logical AND condition returns a true 0 value if both expressions return a true 0 value; if one returns a nonzero value, the AND condition is false and also returns a nonzero value. Execution stops at the first false expression. The and operation is the same as && but has a lower precedence. The logical OR condition returns a true 0 value if one or the other expression returns a true 0 value; if both expressions return a nonzero value, the OR condition is false and also returns a nonzero value. Evaluation stops at the first true expression. The or operation is the same as || but has a lower precedence. Greater than. Less than. Greater than or equal to. Less than or equal to. Equal. Not equal.
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