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Gnome works with any window manager. However, desktop functionality, such as drag-anddrop capabilities and the Gnome pager, only work with window managers that are Gnomecompliant. The current release of Gnome uses the Sawfish window manager. Its is completely Gnome-compliant and is designed to integrate with the Gnome desktop without any duplication of functionality. However, other window managers such as Enlightenment, FVWM, IceWin, and Window Maker can also be used. Check a window manager's documentation to see it is Gnome-compliant. Sawfish employs much the same window operations as used on other window managers. You can resize a window by clicking any of its sides or corners and dragging. You can move the window with a click-and-drag operation on its title bar. You can also right-click and drag any border to move the window, as well as ALT-click anywhere on the window. The upper-right corner lists the Maximize, Minimize, and Close buttons. If the Gnome pager is running in your panel, then Minimize creates a button for the window in the panel that you can click to restore it. If the Gnome pager is not present, the window will iconify, minimizing to an icon on the desktop. You can right-click on the title bar of a window to display a window menu with entries for window operations. These include a desktop entry to move the window to
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another desktop area and the Stick option, which displays the window no matter to what desktop area you move. You can also access the Sawfish desktop menu. To display the menu, middle-click anywhere on the desktop (hold both mouse buttons down at the same time for a two- button mouse). A pop-up menu then appears with submenus for Gnome, user, and other applications, as well as the Desktop, Themes, and Sawfish configurations. You can use this menu to start any application, if you want. With the desktop menus, you move to different desktop areas and virtual desktops. The Themes menu enables you to choose different Sawfish themes (these are separate from KDE themes). Sawfish also has extensive configuration options, discussed in a later section. If you have several window managers installed on your system, you can change from one to the other using the Window Manager capplet. Capplet is the term used for a control applet, a module used to configure your desktop. Select the entry in the main menu to start the Window Manager Settings menu, or select its icon in the Desktop window, which you open from Preferences in the Start Here window. A panel is displayed listing your window managers. To add others to the list, click the Add button on the right side of the panel. This opens a window that prompts you to enter an identifying name for the window manager, the command that starts the window manager, and any configuration tool it may use. If the window manager is Gnome-compliant, you can click the button Window Manager Is Session Managed. Once you finish making your entries and click OK, the new window manager appears in the list on the Window Manager panel. Select it and click Try to run that window manager. If you want to run the window manager's configuration tool, click the Run Configuration Tool button.
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The Gnome (1.4) File Manager: Nautilus
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With Gnome 1.4, the file manager for Gnome was changed from Gnome Midnight Commander (GMC) to Nautilus (Red Hat 7.1 still uses GMC). Nautilus supports the standard features for copying, removing, and deleting items as well as setting permissions and displaying items just as GMC does. Nautilus also provides enhancements such as zooming capabilities, user levels, and theme support. You can enlarge or reduce the size of your file icons, select from novice, intermediate, or expert levels of use, and customize the look and feel of Nautilus with different themes. Nautilus also lets you set up customized views of file listings, enabling you to display images for directory icons and run component applications within the file manager window. For example, a directory of MP3 files could have an album cover for its directory icon and run a component MP3 player within the file manager window to play a file. Nautilus was designed as a desktop shell in which different components can be employed to add functionality. For example, within Nautilus, a Web browser can be executed to provide Web browser capabilities within a Nautilus file manager window. Nautilus is not only a file manager, but also a desktop shell based on a component architecture. Different components, such as a Web browser, compression commands, or an image viewer, can be used to add capabilities to this desktop shell. Note Earlier versions of Linux, including Red Hat 7.1, still use Gnome 1.2 with the Gnome Midnight Commander (GMC) file manager, but are compatible with Gnome 1.4 and Nautilus.
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The standard Nautilus window displays a menu bar and toolbar of file manager commands along with a Location box at the top (see Figure 8-4). The rest of the window is divided into two panes. The left pane is a sidebar used to display information about the current working directory. The right pane is the main panel that displays the list of files and subdirectories in the current working directory. A status bar at the bottom of the window displays information about a selected file or directory.
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Figure 8-4: Nautilus file manager With the preferences menu, you can set your level of expertise: advanced, intermediate, or beginner. The different levels allow for simpler methods of managing files. If you only need the basic file management capabilities, you can choose beginner, leaving advanced and intermediate for the more complex tasks. Next to the Location box is an element for zooming in and out the view of the files. Click the + button to zoom in and the - button to zoom out. Next to the zoom element is a drop-down menu for selecting the different views for your files such as icons, small icons, or details. The sidebar has five different tabbed views for displaying additional information about files and directories: Tree, History, News, Help, and Notes. The Tree view will display a treebased hierarchical view of the directories and files on your system, highlighting the one you have currently selected. You can use this tree to move to other directories and files. The tree maps all the directories on your system, starting from the root directory. You can expand or shrink any directory by clicking the + or - symbol before its name. Select a directory by clicking the directory name. The contents of that directory are then displayed in the main panel. The History tab shows previous files or directories you have accessed, handy for moving back an forth between directories or files. The Help tab provides access to documentation such as Gnome manuals, info pages, and Man documentation. On the Notes tab, you can enter notes about your current working directory. The News tab will display breaking news from sites you have selected. Click the Select Site button to display a list of news sites such as CNN, Gnome News, or Linux Today. URLs for different stories will appear in the sidebar when the News panel is selected. You can view a directory's contents as icons, as a detailed list, as music, or as a custom (other) view. You select the different options from the pop-up menu located on the right side of the Location bar. The List view provides the name, permissions, size, date, owner, and group. For a custom view, you can select the informational fields you want displayed for your
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files. In the List views, buttons are displayed for each field across the top of the main panel. You can use these buttons to sort the lists according to that field. For example, to sort the files by date, click the Date button; to sort by size, click the Size button. In the Icon view you can sort icons, change their sizes, and even preview their contents without opening them. To sort items in the Icon view, select the Lay Out Items entry in the View menu, and then select a layout option. To change an icon's size, select Stretch Icon. Handles will appear on the icon image. Click and drag the handles to change its size. To restore the icon, select Restore Icon's Original Size in the Edit menu. Certain types of files have their icons display previews of their contents. Image files will have their icon display a small version of the image. A music file like an MP3 file will start playing when the mouse pointer moves over its icon. A text file will display in its icon the first few words of its text. The music view lets you treat directories of MP3 files as if they were your own digital music albums. When you select the music view, only MP3 files are displayed. Clicking on a file starts the music player, which will automatically play from track to track. You can even select a cover image for your music directory icon. You can click anywhere on the main panel to display a pop-up menu with entries for managing and arranging your file manager icon (see Table 8-2). To create a new folder, select New Folder, and to open a new file manager window, select New Window. The Lay Out Items entry displays a submenu with entries for sorting your icons by name, size, type, date, or even emblem. The Manually entry lets you move icons wherever you want on the main panel. The Clean up by Name entry will display your icons alphabetically. The Zoom in entry will enlarge your view of the window, making icons bigger, and Zoom out will reduce your view, making them smaller. Normal Size restores them to the standard size. Reset Background lets you change the background used on the File Manager window, useful for music folders where you display your favorite album cover. You can also cut, copy, or paste files to let you more easily move or copy them between folders. Table 8-2: Nautilus File Manager Menu Description Open a file or directory in a separate window. Create a new subdirectory in the directory. Displays a submenu to arrange files by name, size, type, date, or emblems. Orders files alphabetically. Cuts, copies, and pastes files to let you more easily move or copy them between folders. Close-up view of icons, making them appear larger. Distant view of icons, making them appear smaller. Restores view of icons to standard size.
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Menu Item New Window New Folder Lay Out Items Clean Up by Name Cut, Copy, Paste Zoom in Zoom out Normal Size
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Reset Background Sets the background image for the file manager main panel. Note The Lay Out Item submenu is not provided in the Nautilus pop-up menu when the main panel displays files in the list mode.
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The Nautilus file manager operates similarly to a Web browser. It maintains a list of previously viewed directories; you can move back and forth through that list using the toolbar buttons. The LEFT ARROW button moves you to the previously displayed directory, and the RIGHT ARROW button moves you to the next displayed directory. The UP ARROW button moves you to the parent directory, and the Home button moves you to your home directory. To use a pathname to go directly to a given directory, you can type the pathname in the Location box and press ENTER. To search for files or directories, click the Find icon on the toolbar if there is one (see following Note). Depending on the expertise level you set, Nautilus can perform simple or complex searches (simple for beginners and complex for advanced and intermediate). The Location box is replaced by the Find box, where you can enter the pattern you want to search for. Then click on the Find Them button to the right. Complex searches let you specify different attributes such as type, owner, or even file contents. For complex searches, two popup menus are added with which you can further refine your search. These menus specify criteria such as searches by name, content, file type, size, date modified, and owner. Nautilus searches make use of a search daemon called Medusa that creates an index of all your files, enabling very fast searches. Medusa even indexes the contents of your file, supporting text searches of file contents. (For Medusa to work, the crond daemon must be running.) Note Red Hat 7.2 with version 1.0 for Nautilus does not include support for Find operations. A Find icon is not displayed. If you are using Ximian Gnome, you can use a Find utility located on the System menu in the Menu panel. It has many of the same features as the Nautilus Find operation. To open a subdirectory, you can double-click its icon or single-click the icon and select Open from the File menu. If you want to open a separate Nautilus window for that directory, rightclick the directory's icon and select Open in a New Window. As a Gnome-compliant file manager, Nautilus supports GUI drag-and-drop operations for copying and moving files. To move a file or directory, click and drag from one directory to another as you would on Windows or Mac interfaces. The move operation is the default dragand-drop operation in Gnome. To copy a file, click and drag with the right mouse button (not the left) and select Copy Here from the pop-up menu. You can also click and drag normally and then press the CTRL key before you lift up on the left mouse button. Note If you move a file to a directory on another partition (file system), it will be copied instead of moved. You can also perform remove, duplicate, and link creation operations on a file by rightclicking its icon and selecting the action you want from the pop-up menu that appears (see Table 8-3). For example, to remove an item, right-click it and select the Move to Trash entry from the pop-up menu. This places it in the Trash directory where you can later delete it by selecting Empty Trash from the Nautilus File menu. To create a copy of a file, you can select Duplicate from the pop-up menu to create a duplicate version in the same directory. The name of the copy will begin with the term "Duplicate". To create a link, right-click the file and select Create Link from the pop-up menu. This creates a new link file that begins with the term "Link" (see Figure 8-5 for an example of the Duplicate, Link, and Rename operations).
Figure 8-5: Nautilus duplicate, link, and rename operations Table 8-3: The Nautilus File Pop-Up Menu Menu Item Description Open Open in a New Window Open With Show Properties Move to Trash Duplicate Make Link Rename Stretch Icon Remove Custom Image Restore Icon's Original Size Open the file with its associated application. Directories are opened in the file manager. Open a file or directory in a separate window. Select an application with which to open this file. A submenu of possible applications is displayed. Display the Properties dialog box for this file. There are three panels: Statistics, Options, and Permissions. Move a file to the Trash directory, where you can later delete it. Create a duplicate copy of the file in the same directory. Create a link to that file in the same directory. Rename the file. Change the size of a selected icon. Remove a custom image you selected for the icon. A selected icon you enlarged earlier is restored to its standard size.
To rename a file you can either right-click on the file's icon and select the Rename entry from the pop-up menu or slowly click on the name of the file shown below its icon. The name of the icon will be highlighted in a black background, encased in a small text box. You can then click on the name and delete the old name, typing a new one. You can also rename a file by entering a new name in its Properties dialog box. Use a right-click and select Show Properties from the pop-up menu to display the Properties dialog box. On the General tab, you can change the name of the file. File operations can be performed on a selected group of files and directories. You can select a group of items in several ways. You can click the first item and then hold down the SHIFT key while clicking the last item. You can also click and drag the mouse across items you want to select. To select separated items, hold the CTRL key down as you click the individual icons. If you want to select all the items in the directory, choose the Select All entry in the Edit menu. You can also select files based on pattern matches on the filenames. Choose the
Select Files entry in the Edit menu. You can then enter a pattern using Linux file-matching wildcard symbols such as * (See 11). For example, the pattern *.c would select all C source code files (those ending with the extension ".c"). You can then click and drag a set of items at once. This enables you to copy, move, or even delete several files at once. To move files between directories, open two file manager windows to the respective directories. Then click and drag the items from one window to the other. You can start any application in the file manager by double-clicking either the application itself or a data file used for that application. If a file does not have an associated application, you can right-click the file and select the Open With entry. A submenu displays a list of possible applications. If your application is not listed, you can select Other application to open a dialog box where you can choose the application with which you want to open this file. You can also use a text viewer to display the bare contents of a file within the file manager window. Drag-and-drop operations are also supported for applications. You can drag a data file to its associated application icon (say, one on the desktop); the application then starts up using that data file. With the Properties dialog box, you can view detailed information on a file and set options and permissions (see Figure 8-6). A Properties box has three panels: Basic, Emblems, and Permissions. The Basic panel shows detailed information such as type, size, location, and date modified. The type is a MIME type, indicating the type of application associated with it. The file's icon is displayed at the top with a text box showing the file's name. You can edit the filename in this text box, changing that name. A button at the bottom labeled Select Custom Icon will open a dialog box showing available icons you can use. You can select the one you want from that window. The Remove Custom Icon button will restore the default icon image. The Emblems panel enables you set the emblem you want displayed for this file, displaying all the emblems available. The Permissions panel shows the read, write, and execute permissions for user, group, and other, as set for this file. You can change any of the permissions here, provided the file belongs to you. The panel will also show the file's owner and its group. The group name expands to a pop-up menu listing different groups, allowing you to select one to change the file's group.
Figure 8-6: File properties on Nautilus You can set preferences for your Nautilus file manager in the Preferences dialog box. Access this dialog box by selecting the Edit Preferences item in the Preferences menu. The Preferences dialog box shows a main panel with a sidebar with several configuration entries, including Appearance, Windows & Desktop, Icon & List Views, Sidebar panels, Search, Navigation, and Speed tradeoffs (see Figure 8-7). You use these dialog boxes to set the default display properties for your Nautilus file manager. For example, Windows & Desktop allows you to select which bars to display by default, such as the sidebar or the toolbar. Appearance lets you select the style you want to use. For the Sidebar panel, you can select which tab to display, such as history or tree. On the Search menu, you can specify the default Web search site to use.
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