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You can, of course, combine several commands, connecting each pair with a pipe. The output of one command can be piped into another command, which, in turn, can pipe its output into still another command. Suppose you have a file with a list of items you want to print both numbered and in alphabetical order. To print the numbered and sorted list, you can first generate a sorted version with the sort command and then pipe that output to the cat command. The cat command with the -n option then takes as its input the sorted list and generates as its output a numbered, sorted list. The numbered, sorted list can then be piped to the lpr command for printing. The next example shows the command:
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$ sort mylist | cat -n | lpr
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The standard input piped into a command can be more carefully controlled with the standard input argument, -. When you use the dash as an argument for a command, it represents the standard input. Suppose you want to print a file with the name of its directory at the top. The pwd command outputs a directory name, and the cat command outputs the contents of a file. In this case, the cat command needs to take as its input both the file and the standard input piped in from the pwd command. The cat command will have two arguments: the standard input as represented by the dash and the filename of the file to be printed. In the next example, the pwd command generates the directory name and pipes it into the cat command. For the cat command, this piped-in standard input now contains the directory name. As represented by the dash, the standard input is the first argument to the cat command. The cat command copies the directory name and the contents of the mylist file to the standard output, which is then piped to the lpr command for printing. If you want to print the directory name at the end of the file instead, simply make the dash the last argument and the filename the first argument, as in cat mylist -.
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$ pwd | cat - mylist | lpr
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Redirecting and Piping the Standard Error: >&, 2>
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When you execute commands, an error could possibly occur. You may give the wrong number of arguments, or some kind of system error could take place. When an error occurs, the system issues an error message. Usually such error messages are displayed on the screen, along with the standard output. Linux distinguishes between standard output and error messages, however. Error messages are placed in yet another standard byte stream called the standard error. In the next example, the cat command is given as its argument the name of a file that does not exist, myintro. In this case, the cat command simply issues an error:
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$ cat myintro cat : myintro not found $
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Because error messages are in a separate data stream from the standard output, error messages still appear on the screen for you to see even if you have redirected the standard output to a file. In the next example, the standard output of the cat command is redirected to the file
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mydata. However, the standard error, containing the error messages, is still directed to the screen.
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$ cat myintro > mydata cat : myintro not found $
You can redirect the standard error as you can the standard output. This means you can save your error messages in a file for future reference. This is helpful if you need a record of the error messages. Like the standard output, the standard error has the screen device for its default destination. However, you can redirect the standard error to any file or device you choose using special redirection operators. In this case, the error messages will not be displayed on the screen. Redirection of the standard error relies on a special feature of shell redirection. You can reference all the standard byte streams in redirection operations with numbers. The numbers 0, 1, and 2 reference the standard input, standard output, and standard error, respectively. By default, an output redirection, >, operates on the standard output, 1. You can modify the output redirection to operate on the standard error, however, by preceding the output redirection operator with the number 2. In the next example, the cat command again will generate an error. The error message is redirected to the standard byte stream represented by the number 2, the standard error.
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