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As a system administrator, you must manage the users of your system. You can add or remove users, as well as add and remove groups, and you can modify access rights and permissions for both users and groups. You also have access to system initialization files you can use to configure all user shells. And you have control over the default initialization files copied into a user account when it is first created. You can decide how new user accounts should be configured initially by configuring these files.
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Every file is owned by a user who SECURITY SCAN can control access to it. System 2 files are owned by the root user and accessible by the root only. Services like FTP are an exception to this rule. Though accessible by the root, a service s files are owned by their 2 own special user. For example, FTP files are owned by an ftp user. This provides users with access to a service s 2 files without also having root user access.
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Any utility to manage a user, such as the Red Hat User Manager, makes use of certain default files, called configuration files, and directories to set up the new account. A set of pathnames is used to locate these default files or to indicate where to create certain user directories. For example, /etc/skel holds initialization files for a new user. A new user s home directory is created in the /home directory. Table 2-1 has a list of the pathnames.
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Directory and Files /home /etc/skel
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Description Location of the user s own home directory. Holds the default initialization files for the login shell, such as .bash_profile, .bashrc, and .bash_logout. Includes many user setup directories and files such as .kde for KDE and Desktop for Gnome. Holds the login shells, such as bash or tcsh. Holds the password for a user. Holds the group to which the user belongs. Encrypted password file. Encrypted password file for groups.
/etc/shells /etc/passwd /etc/group /etc/shadow /etc/gshadow
/etc/login.defs Default login definitions for users. Table 2-1. Paths for User Configuration Files
TIP You can find out which users are currently logged in with the w or who commands. The w command displays detailed information about each connected user, such as from where they logged in and how long they have been inactive, and the date and time of login. The who command provides less detailed data.
The Password Files
A user gains access to an account by providing a correct login and password. The system maintains passwords in password files, along with login information like the user name and id. Tools like the passwd command let users change their passwords by modifying these files. /etc/ passwd is the file that traditionally held user passwords, though in encrypted form. However, all users are allowed to read the /etc/passwd file, which would have allowed access by users to the encrypted passwords. For better security, password entries are kept in the /etc/shadow file, which is restricted to the root user.
Managing Users
/etc/passwd
When you add a user, an entry for that user is made in the /etc/passwd file, commonly known as the password file. Each entry takes up one line that has several fields separated by colons. The fields are as follows: Username Password account User ID Login name of the user Encrypted password for the user s
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Unique number assigned by the system
Group ID Number used to identify the group to which the user belongs Comment full name Any user information, such as the user s The user s home directory
Home directory
Login shell Shell to run when the user logs in; this is the default shell, usually /bin/bash Depending on whether or not you are using shadow passwords, the password field (the second field) will be either an x or an encrypted form of the user s password. Red Hat implements shadow passwords by default, so these entries should have an x for their passwords. The following is an example of an /etc/passwd entry. For such entries, you must use the passwd command to create a password. Notice also that user IDs in this particular system start at 500 and increment by one. dylan:x:500:500:User:/home/dylan:/bin/bash chris:x:501:501:User:/home/chris:/bin/bash
If you turn off shadow password SECURITY SCAN support, entries in your passwd file will display encrypted passwords. Because any user can read the /etc/passwd file, intruders can access and possibly crack the encrypted passwords.
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