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Although it is technically possible to edit entries in the /etc/passwd file directly, it is not recommended. In particular, deleting an entry does not remove any other information, permissions, and data associated with a user, which opens a possible security breach whereby an intruder could take over the deleted user s id or disk space.
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/etc/shadow and /etc/gshadow
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The /etc/passwd file is a simple text file, and is vulnerable to security breaches. If anyone gains access to the /etc/ password file, they might be able to decipher or crack the encrypted passwords through brute force crack. The shadow suite of applications implements a greater level of security. These include versions of useradd, groupadd, and their corresponding update and delete programs. Most other user configuration tools, including redhat-config-users, support shadow security measures. With shadow security, passwords are no longer kept in the /etc/password file. Instead, passwords are kept in a separate file called /etc/shadow. Access is restricted to the root user. The following example shows the /etc/shadow entries for two users, listing their encrypted passwords. The entry for chris has an * in its Password field, indicating that a password has not yet been created for this user.
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dylan:YOTPdPyyc:500:500:User:/home/dylan:/bin/bash chris:*:501:501:User:/home/chris:/bin/bash
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A corresponding password file, called /etc/gshadow, is also maintained for groups that require passwords. Red Hat supports shadow passwords by default. You can manually specify whether you want to use shadow passwords with the Red Hat authentication tool.
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To change any particular field for a given user, you should use the user management tools provided, such as the passwd command, redhat-config-users, adduser, usermod,
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useradd, and chage, discussed in this chapter. The passwd command lets you change the password only. Other tools, like redhat-config-users, not only make entries in the /etc/passwd file, but also create the home directory for the user and install initialization files in the user s home directory. These tools also let you control a user s access to their accounts. You can set expiration dates for users or lock them out of their accounts. Users locked out of their accounts will have their password in the /etc/shadow file prefixed by the invalid string, !!. Unlocking the account removes this prefix.
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With the Red Hat Authentication tool (authconfig-gtk) you can enable and configure various authentication tools such as NIS and LDAP servers, as well as enabling shadow passwords, LDAP, and Kerberos authentication (accessible as Authentication on the System Settings menu and windows).
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Managing User Environments
Each time a user logs in, two profile scripts are executed, a system profile script that is the same for every user, and a user login profile script that can be customized to each user s needs. When the user logs out, a user logout script is run. In addition, each time a shell is generated, including the login shell, a user shell script is run. There are different kinds of scripts used for different shells. On Red Hat, the default shell commonly used is the bash shell. As an alternative, users could use different shells such as tcsh or the Z shell, both installed with Red Hat Linux.
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Profile Scripts
For the bash shell, each user has their own bash login profile script named .bash_profile in their home directory. The system profile script is located in the /etc
42 Red Hat Linux Pocket Administrator
directory and named profile with no preceding period. The bash shell user shell script is called .bashrc. The .bashrc file also runs the /etc/bashrc file to implement any global definitions such as the PS1 and TERM variables. The /etc/bashrc file also executes any specialized initialization file in the /etc/profile.d directory, such as those used for KDE and Gnome. The .bash_profile file runs the .bashrc file, and through it, the /etc/bashrc file, implementing global definitions. As a superuser, you can edit any of these profile or shell scripts and put in any commands you want executed for each user when they log in. For example, you may want to define a default path for commands, in case the user has not done so. Or, you may want to notify the user of recent system news or account changes.
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