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Option -m -M -d -E
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Description Minimum number of days a user must go before being able to change his password Maximum number of days a user can go without changing his password The last day the password was changed Specific expiration date for a password, date in format in yyyy-mm-dd or in commonly used format like mm/dd/yyyy Allowable account inactivity period (in days), after which password will expire Warning period, number of days before expiration when the user will be sent a warning message
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-l Display current password expiration controls Table 2-2. Options for the chage Command
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You can also combine your options into one command, chage -M 7 -E 07/30-/2003 chris
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A listing of the chage options is in Table 2-2:
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For Red Hat distributions, you should use the Red Hat User Manager (redhat-config-users) to manage user accounts (see Figure 2-1). You can access the Red Hat User Manager from the System Settings window and menu. It is labeled simply as Users & Groups. You can also access it from the Gnome System menu.
The Red Hat User Manager window displays panels for 2 listing both users and groups. You use the User Manager to manage your groups, as well as users. Click the appropriate tab to display either users or groups. Within 2 the user and group panels, field labels are displayed at the top for usernames, group, the user s full name, login shell, or home directories. A button bar lists various tasks 2 you can perform, including creating new users or groups, editing current ones (Properties), or deleting a selected
46 Red Hat Linux Pocket Administrator
Figure 2-1.
Red Hat User Manager
user or group. The number of users and groups on a system can be extensive, so the User Manager provides an easy-to-use search tool. You can enter a search string in the box labeled Filter By. When you click the Apply Filter button, only those matching users or groups are listed. From the Preferences menu, you can elect to filter out users and groups set up by your system for administration purposes, leaving just your normal users and groups. To create a new user, click the Add User button. This opens a window with entries for the username, password, and login shell, along with options to create a home directory and a new group for that user. Once you have created a user, you can edit its properties to add or change features. Select the user s entry and click the Properties button. This displays a window with tabbed panels for User Data, Account Info, Password Info, and Groups. You can change basic features such as the password and login shell in the User Data panel. Account Info lets you lock an account and set an expiration date for it. Password Info lets you set password expiration limits to force a user to change his or her password or to render the account inactive after a certain time. On the Groups panel, you can select the groups that the user belongs to, adding or removing group membership.
Managing Users
Adding and Removing Users with useradd, usermod, and userdel
Linux also provides the useradd, usermod, and userdel commands to manage user accounts. All these commands take in all their information as options on the command line. If an option is not specified, they use predetermined default values.
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useradd
With the useradd command, you enter values as options on the command line, such as the name of a user, to create a user account. It then creates a new login and directory for that name using all the default features for a new account. # useradd chris The useradd utility first checks the /etc/login.defs file for default values for creating a new account. For those defaults not defined in the /etc/login.defs file, useradd supplies its own. You can display these defaults using the useradd command with the -D option. The default values include the group name, the user ID, the home directory, the skel directory, and the login shell. Values the user enters on the command line will override corresponding defaults. The group name is the name of the group in which the new account is placed. By default, this is other, which means the new account belongs to no group. The user ID is a number identifying the user account. The skel directory is the system directory that holds copies of initialization files. These initialization files are copied into the user s new home directory when it is created. The login shell is the pathname for the particular shell the user plans to use. The useradd command has options that correspond to each default value. Table 2-3 holds a list of all the options
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