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Files and directories belong to both an owner and a group. A group usually consists of a collection of users, all belonging to the same group. In the following example, the mydata file is owned by the user robert and belongs to the group weather.
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-rw-r--r-- 1 robert weather 207 Feb 20 11:55 mydat
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2 A group can also consist of one user, however, normally it s the user who creates the file. Each user on the system, including the root user, is assigned their own group, of 2 which they are the only member, ensuring access only by that user. In the next example, the report file is owned by the robert user and belongs to that user s single user 2 group, robert. 2
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-rw-r--r-- 1 robert robert 305 Mar 17 12:01 report
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The root user, the system administrator, owns most of the system files that also belong to the root group, of which only the root user is a member. Most administration files, like configuration files in the /etc directory, are owned by the root user and belong to the root group. Only the root user has permission to modify them, whereas normal users can read, and, in the case of programs, also execute them. In the next example, root user owns the fstab file in /etc directory, which also belongs to the root user group. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 621 Apr 22 11:03 fstab Certain directories and files located in the system directories are owned by a service, rather than the root user, because the services need to change those files directly. This is particularly true for services that interact with remote users, such as Internet servers. Most of these files are located in the /var directory. Here you will find files and directories managed by services like the Squid proxy server and the Domain Name Server (named). In this example, the Squid proxy server directory is owned by the squid user and belongs to the squid group.
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Changing a File s Owner or Group: chown and chgrp
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Although other users may be able to access a file, only the owner can change its permissions. If, however, you want to give some other user control over one of your file s permissions, you can change the owner of the file from yourself to the other user. The chown command transfers control over a file to another user. This command takes as its first argument the name of the other user. Following the username, you list the files you are transferring. In the next example, the user gives control of the mydata file to user robert:
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$ chown robert mydata $ ls -l mydata -rw-r--r-- 1 robert weather 207 Feb 20 11:55 mydata
Managing Users
You can also, if you wish, change the group for a file, using the chgrp command. chgrp takes as its first argument the name of the new group for a file or files. Following the new group name, you list the files you want changed to that group. In the next example, the user changes the group name for today and weekend to the forecast group. The ls -l command then reflects the group change.
$ chgrp forecast today weekend $ ls -l -rw-rw-r-- 1 chris forecast 568 Feb 14 10:30 today -rw-rw-r-- 1 chris forecast 308 Feb 17 12:40 weekend
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
You can combine the chgrp operation in the chown command by attaching a group to the new owner with a colon.
$ chown george:forecast tomorrow -rw-rw-r-- 1 george forecast 568 Feb 14 10:30 tomorrow
Absolute Permissions: Binary Masks
Instead of permission symbols in Table 2-5, many users find it more convenient to use the absolute method. The absolute method changes all the permissions at once, instead of specifying one or the other. It uses a binary mask that references all the permissions in each category. The three categories, each with three permissions, conform to an octal binary format. Octal numbers have a base 8 structure. When translated into a binary number, each octal digit becomes three binary digits. A binary number is a set of 1 and 0 digits. Three octal digits in a number translate into three sets of three binary digits, which is nine altogether and the exact number of permissions for a file.
2 You can use the octal digits as a mask to set the different file permissions. Each octal digit applies to one of the user categories. You can think of the digits matching up with 2 the permission categories from left to right, beginning with the owner category. The first octal digit applies to the owner category, the second to the group, and the third 2 2
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