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Most institutions treat market, credit, operational, and systemic risk as separate management issues, which are therefore managed through separate competence directives and reporting lines. With the increased complexity and speed of events, regulators have implemented more and more regulations regarding how to measure, report, and disclose risk managexvii
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Interaction and Integration of Risk Categories.
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1 2 3 4 Increasing operational risks
Operational risk
Credit risk
ment issues. As a result, one problem is to understand how the different risk categories are defined, and what characteristics, assumptions, and conditions are connected to the terms used to describe them. This allows us to understand the different natures of different types of risk. And because risk has to be measured, measurement tools, methodologies, and so forth must also be examined. To this end, a scheme has been developed which allows a systematic screening of the different issues characterizing the natures of the different risk areas. It also helps determine the extent to which different risks can be combined. Many methodologies that claim to provide total enterprise risk management, enterprisewide risk management, and the like do not prove whether the underlying risks share enough similarities, or the risk areas share close enough assumptions, to justify considering them as a homogeneous whole. This scheme is applied to case studies, to examine the extent to which some organizational structures, processes, models, assumptions,
Introduction
methodologies, and so forth have proved applicable, and the extent of the serious financial, reputational, and sometimes existential damages that have resulted when they have not.
APPROACH
This work focuses on the level above the financial instruments and is intended to add value at the organization, transaction, and process levels so as to increase the store of knowledge already accumulated. The pricing of instruments and the valuation of portfolios are not the primary objects of this book. Substantial knowledge has already been developed in this area and is in continuous development. Risk management at the instrument level is an essential basis for understanding how to make an institution s risk management structures, processes, and organizations efficient and effective. This book aims to develop a scheme or structure to screen and compare the different risk areas. This scheme must be structured in such a way that it considers the appropriateness and usefulness of the different methodologies, assumptions, and conditions for economic and regulatory purposes. The objectives of this book are as follows:
Define the main terms used for the setup of the scheme, such as systemic, market, credit, and operational risk. Review the methodologies, assumptions, and conditions connected to these terms. Structure the characteristics of the different risk areas in such a way that the screening of these risk areas allows comparison of the different risk areas for economic and regulatory purposes.
In a subsequent step, this scheme is applied to a selection of case studies. These are mainly publicized banking failures from the past decade or so. The structured analysis of these relevant case studies should demonstrate the major causes and effects of each loss and the extent to which risk control measures were or were not appropriate and effective. The objectives of the case study analyses are as follows:
Highlight past loss experiences. Detail previous losses in terms of systemic, market, credit, and operational risks. Highlight the impact of the losses. Provide practical assistance in the development of improved risk management through knowledge transfer and management information. Generate future risk management indicators to mitigate the potential likelihood of such disasters.
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CHAPTER
Risk Management: A Maturing Discipline
BACKGROUND
he entire history of human society is a chronology of exposure to risks of all kinds and human efforts to deal with those risks. From the first emergence of the species Homo sapiens, our ancestors practiced risk management in order to survive, not only as individuals but as a species. The survival instinct drove humans to avoid the risks that threatened extinction and strive for security. Our actual physical existence is proof of our ancestors success in applying risk management strategies. Originally, our ancestors faced the same risks as other animals: the hazardous environment, weather, starvation, and the threat of being hunted by predators that were stronger and faster than humans. The environment was one of continuous peril, with chronic hunger and danger, and we can only speculate how hard it must have been to achieve a semblance of security in such a threatening world. In response to risk, our early ancestors learned to avoid dangerous areas and situations. However, their instinctive reactions to risk and their adaptive behavior do not adequately answer our questions about how they successfully managed the different risks they faced. Other hominids did not attain the ultimate goal of survival including H. sapiens neanderthalensis, despite the fact that they were larger and stronger than modern humans. The modern humans, H. sapiens sapiens, not only survived all their relatives but proved more resilient and excelled in adaptation and risk management. Figure 1-1 shows the threats that humans have been exposed to over the ages, and which probably will continue in the next century, as well. It is obvious that these threats have shifted from the individual to society
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