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It s always easiest to use DC motors that already have a gear reduction box built onto them, such as the motor in Fig. 17.9. R/C servo motors already incorporate gear reduction, and stepper motors may not require it. This fact saves you from having to find a gear reducer that fits the motor and application and attach it yourself. When selecting gear motors, you ll be most interested in the output speed of the gearbox, not the actual running speed
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20 teeth 1,200 rpm 60 teeth 30 teeth 800 rpm 400 rpm 25 teeth 960 rpm 40 teeth 480 rpm
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FIGURE 17.7 Gears driven by the 20-tooth gear on the left rotate at different speeds, depending on their diameter.
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GEARS AND GEAR REDUCTION
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12-tooth driver (1,000 rpm)
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12-tooth pinion fixed on 60-tooth gear
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48-tooth driven gear (50 rpm)
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FIGURE 17.8 True gear reduction is achieved by ganging gears on the same shaft.
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of the motor. Note as well that the running and stall torque of the motor will be greatly increased. Make sure that the torque specification on the motor is for the output of the gearbox, not the motor itself. With most gear reduction systems, the output shaft is opposite the input shaft (but usually off center). With other boxes, the output and input are on the same side of the box. When the shafts are at 90 degrees from one another, the reduction box is said to be a rightangle drive. If you have the option of choosing, select the kind of gear reduction that best suits the design of your robot. I have found that the shafts on opposite sides is the allaround best choice. Right-angle drives also come in handy, but they usually carry high price tags. When using motors without built-in gear reduction, you ll need to add reduction boxes, such as the model shown in Fig. 17.10, or make your own. Although it is possible to do both of these yourself, there are many pitfalls:
I Shaft diameters of motors and ready-made gearboxes may differ, so you must be sure
that the motor and gearbox mate.
I Separate gear reduction boxes are hard to find. Most must be cannibalized from salvage
motors. Old AC motors are one source of surplus boxes.
I When designing your own gear reduction box, you must take care to ensure that all the
gears have the same hub size and that meshing gears exactly match each other.
I Machining the gearbox requires precision, since even a small error can cause the gears
to mesh improperly.
ANATOMY OF A GEAR
Gears consist of teeth, but these teeth can come in any number of styles, sizes, and orientations. Spur gears are the most common type. The teeth surround the outside edge of the gear, as shown in Fig. 17.11. Spur gears are used when the drive and driven shafts are parallel. Bevel gears have teeth on the surface of the circle rather than the edge. They are used
246 CHOOSING THE RIGHT MOTOR FOR THE JOB
FIGURE 17.9 A motor with an enclosed gearbox. These are ideal for robotics use.
FIGURE 17.10 A gear reduction box, originally removed from an open-frame AC motor. On this unit, the input and output shafts are on the same side.
GEARS AND GEAR REDUCTION
to transmit power to perpendicular shafts. Miter gears serve a similar function but are designed so that no reduction takes place. Spur, bevel, and miter gears are reversible. That is, unless the gear ratio is very large, you can drive the gears from either end of the gear system, thus increasing or decreasing the input speed. Worm gears transmit power perpendicularly, like bevel and miter gears, but their design is unique. The worm (or lead screw) resembles a threaded rod. The rod provides the power. As it turns, the threads engage a modified spur gear (the modification takes into consideration the cylindrical shape of the worm). Worm gear systems are specifically designed for large-scale reduction. The gearing is not usually reversible; you can t drive the worm by turning the spur gear. This is an important point because it gives worm gear systems a kind of automatic locking capability. Work gears are particularly well suited for arm mechanisms in which you want the joints to remain where they are. With a traditional gear system, the arm may droop or sink back due to gravity once the power from the drive motor is removed. Rack gears are like spur gears unrolled into a flat rod. They are primarily intended to transmit rotational motion to linear motion. Racks have a kind of self-locking characteristic as well, but it s not as strong as that found in worm gears. The size of gear teeth is expressed as pitch, which is roughly calculated by counting the number of teeth on the gear and dividing it by the diameter of the gear. For example, a gear that measures two inches and has 48 teeth has a tooth pitch of about 24. Common pitches are 12 (large), 24, 32, and 48. Some gears have extra-fine 64-pitch teeth, but these are
FIGURE 17.11 Spur gears. These particular gears are made of nylon and have aluminum hubs. It s better to use metal hubs in which the gear is secured to the shaft with a setscrew.
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