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252 CHOOSING THE RIGHT MOTOR FOR THE JOB
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FIGURE 17.15 Use a setscrew to secure the gear to the shaft.
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Learn more about robot locomotion systems All about DC motors All about stepper motors All about servo motors Operating motors by computer Interfacing motors to electronic circuitry
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16, Robot Locomotion Principles 18, Working with DC Motors 19, Working with Stepper Motors 20, Working with Servo Motors 28, An Overview of Robot Brains 29, Interfacing with Computers and Microcontrollers
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WORKING WITH DC MOTORS
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DC motors are the mainstay of robotics. A surprisingly small motor, when connected to
wheels through a gear reduction system, can power a 25-, 50-, even 100-pound robot seemingly with ease. A flick of a switch, a click of a relay, or a tick of a transistor, and the motor stops in its tracks and turns the other way. A simple electronic circuit enables you to gain quick and easy control over speed from a slow crawl to a fast sprint. This chapter shows you how to apply open-loop continuous DC motors (as opposed to stepping or servo DC motors) to power your robots. The emphasis is on using motors to propel a robot across your living room floor, but you can use the same control techniques for any motor application, including gripper closure, elbow flexion, and sensor positioning.
The Fundamentals of DC Motors
There are a many ways to build a DC motor. By their nature, all DC motors are powered by direct current hence the name DC rather than the alternating current (AC) used by most motorized household appliances. By and large, AC motors are less expensive to manufacture than DC motors, and because their construction is simpler they tend to last longer than DC motors.
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254 WORKING WITH DC MOTORS
Perhaps the most common form of DC motor is the permanent magnet type, so called because it uses two or more permanent magnet pole pieces (called the stator). The turning shaft of the motor, or the rotor, is composed of windings that are connected to a mechanical commutator. Internally, metal brushes (which can wear out!) supply the contact point for the current that turns the motor. Other types of DC motors exist as well, including the series wound (or universal) and the shunt wound DC motors. These differ from the permanent magnet motor in that no magnets are used. Instead, the stator is composed of windings that, when supplied with current, become electromagnets. One of the prime benefits of most, but not all, DC motors is that they are inherently reversible. Apply current in one direction (the and on the battery terminals, for example), and the motor may spin clockwise. Apply current in the other direction, and the motor spins counterclockwise. This capability makes DC motors well suited for robotics, where it is often desirable to have the motors reverse direction, such as to back a robot away from an obstacle or to raise or lower a mechanical arm. Not all DC motors are reversible, and those that are typically exhibit better performance (though often just slightly better) in one direction over the other. For example, the motor may turn a few revolutions per minute faster in one direction. Normally, this is not observable in the typical motor application, but robotics isn t typical. In a robot with the common two-motor drive (see 16, Robot Locomotion Principles ), the motors will be facing opposite directions, so one will turn clockwise while the other turns counterclockwise. If one motor is slightly faster than the other, it can cause the robot to steer off course. Fortunately, this effect isn t usually seen when the robot just travels short distances, and in any case, it can often be corrected by the control circuitry used in the robot.
Reviewing DC Motor Ratings
Motor ratings, such as voltage and current, were introduced in 17, Choosing the Right Motor for the Job. Here are some things to keep in mind when considering a DC motor for your robot:
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