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The control of motors is big business, and it shouldn t come as a surprise that dozens of companies offer all-in-one solutions for controlling motors through fully electronic means. These products range from inexpensive $2 integrated circuits to sophisticated modules
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+12V +12V 14 1 2 7 4011 (1/4) g 3 s d Q1 D1 C1 0.1 D3 d Q3 s g
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FIGURE 18.8 Four N-channel power MOSFET transistors in an H pattern can be used to control the direction of a motor. In a circuit application such as this, MOSFET devices do not strictly require biasing resistors, as do standard transistors.
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TABLE 18.5 PARTS LIST FOR N-CHANNEL POWER MOSFET MOTOR CONTROL BRIDGE.
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IC1 Q1 Q4 D1 D4 Misc.
4011 CMOS Quad NAND Gate IC IRF-5xx series (e.g., IRF-530 or equiv.) power MOSFET 1N4002 diode Heat sinks for transistors
costing tens of thousands of dollars. Of course, we ll confine our discussion to the low end of this scale! The basic motor control is an H-bridge, as discussed earlier, an all-in-one integrated circuit package. Bridges for high-current motors tend to be physically large, and they may come with heat fins or have connections to a heat sink. A good example of a motor bridge is the Allegro Microsystems 3952, which provides in one single package a much improved version of the circuit shown in Fig. 18.9. A typical working circuit using the 3952 is shown in Fig. 18.10. Motor control bridges have two or more pins on them for connection to control electronics. Typical functions for the pins are:
I Motor enable. When enabled, the motor turns on. When disabled, the motor turns off.
Some bridges let the motor float when disabled; that is, the motor coasts to a stop. On other bridges disabling the motor causes a full or partial short across the motor terminals, which acts as a brake to stop the motor very quickly.
264 WORKING WITH DC MOTORS
Q1 P-Channel d g Control signal A s
Q3 P-Channel g Control signal B
CMOS buffer g Q2 N-Channel s d d CMOS buffer g Q4 s N-Channel
FIGURE 18.9 Combination N- and P-channel MOSFET transistors can be used to increase the voltage flowing to the motors. The MOSFETs should be complementary pairs (made to work with one another) that share the same voltage and current ratings. Most makers of MOSFET transistors provide complementary N- and P-channel products.
TABLE 18.6 PARTS LIST FOR COMPLEMENTARY N- AND P-CHANNEL POWER MOSFET MOTOR CONTROL BRIDGE.
IC1 Q1, Q3 Q2, Q4 D1 D4 Misc.
4009 CMOS hex inverter IC IRF-9530 (or equiv.) P-channel power MOSFET IRF-530 (or equiv.) N-channel power MOSFET 1N4002 diode Heat sinks for transistors
I Direction. Setting the direction pin changes the direction of the motor. I Brake. On bridges that allow the motor to float when the enable pin is disengaged, a sep-
arate brake input is used to specifically control the braking action of the motor.
I PWM. Most H-bridge motor control ICs are used not only to control the direction and
power of the motor, but its speed as well. The typical means used to vary the speed of a motor is with pulse width modulation, or PWM. This topic is described more fully in the next section. The better motor control bridges incorporate overcurrent protection circuitry, which prevents them from being damaged if the motor pulls too much current and overheats the chip. Some even provide for current sense, an output that can be fed back to the control electronics in order to monitor the amount of current being drawn from the motor. This
MOTOR SPEED CONTROL 265
BRAKE REF RC GROUND GROUND LOGIC SUPPLY PHASE ENABLE
1 VBB 2 3 4 LOGIC 5 6 7 8 VBB VCC
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
LOAD SUPPLY OUTB MODE GROUND GROUND SENSE OUTA LOAD SUPPLY
FIGURE 18.10 The Allegro 3952 is one of several all-in-one H-bridge motor control ICs.
can be useful when you need to determine if the robot has become stuck. Recall from earlier in this chapter that DC motors will draw the most current when they are stalled. If the robot gets caught on something and can t budge, the motors will stop, and the current draw will increase. Because motor control bridges are so easy to use, and cost relatively little, we ll gravitate toward using them in the projects we describe rather than the discrete methods discussed in the previous sections. Of course, you re free to use whatever motor control methods you wish. Some of the available motor control bridges include the L293D and L298N from SGSThomson; the 754410, an improved version of the L293 from Texas Instruments; and the LM18293 from National Semiconductor. Be sure to also check the listings in Appendix B, Sources, and Appendix C, Robot Information on the Internet, for additional sources of information on motor control bridges.
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