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CONTROLLING A STEPPER MOTOR 285
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UCN5804. This chip is designed expressly for use with the common unipolar stepper motor and provides a four-step actuation sequence. Stepper motor translator chips tend to be modestly priced, at about $5 to $10, depending on their features and where you buy them. Figure 19.7 (refer to the parts list in Table 19.1) shows a typical schematic of the UCN5804. Heavier duty motors (more than about 1A per phase) can be driven by adding power transistors to the four outputs of the chips, as shown in the manufacturer s application notes. Note the Direction pin. Pulling this pin high or low reverses the rotation of the motor.
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Using logic gates to control stepper motors
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Another approach to operating unipolar stepper motors is to use discrete gates and clock ICs. You can assemble a stepper motor translator circuit using just two IC packages. The circuit can be constructed using TTL or CMOS chips. The TTL version is shown in Fig. 19.8 (refer to the parts list in Table 19.2). Four Exclusive OR gates from a single 7486 IC provide the steering logic. You set the direction by pulling pin 12 HIGH or LOW. The stepping actuation is controlled by a 7476, which contains two JK flip-flops. The Q and Q outputs of the flip-flops control the phasing of the motor. Stepping is accomplished by triggering the clock inputs of both flip-flops. The 7476 can t directly power a stepper motor. You must use power transistors or MOSFETs to drive the windings of the motor. See the section titled Translator Enhancements for a complete power driving schematic as well as other options you can add to this circuit. The CMOS version, shown in Fig. 19.9 (refer to the parts list in Table 19.3), is identical to the TTL version, except that a 4070 chip is used for the Exclusive OR gates and a 4027 is used for the flip-flops. The pinouts are slightly different, so follow the correct schematic for the type of chips you use. Note that another CMOS Exclusive OR package, the 4030, is also available. Don t use this chip; it behaved erratically in this, as well as other pulsed, circuits. In both the TTL and CMOS circuits, the stepper motor itself can be operated from a supply voltage that is wholly different than the voltage supplied to the ICs.
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Four NPN power transistors, four resistors, and a handful of diodes are all the translator circuits described in the last section need to provide driving power. (You can also use this scheme to increase the driving power of the UCN5804, detailed earlier). The schematic for the circuit is shown in Fig. 19.10 (refer to the parts list in Table 19.4). Note that you can substitute the bipolar transistors and resistors with power MOSFETs. See 17, Choosing the Right Motor for the Job, for more information on using power MOSFETs. You can use just about any NPN power transistor that will handle the motor. The TIP31 is a good choice for applications that require up to one amp of current. Use the 2N3055 for heavier-duty motors. Mount the drive transistors on a suitable heat sink. You must insert a bias resistor in series between the outputs of the translation circuit and the base of the transistors. Values between about 1K and 3K should work with most motors and most transistors. Experiment until you find the value that works without causing the flip-flop chips to overheat. You can also apply Ohm s law, figuring in the current draw of the motor and the gain of the transistor, to accurately find the correct value of the resistor. If this is new to you, see Appendix A, Further Reading, for a list of books on electronic design and theory.
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