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Unipolar stepper motor
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+5 vdc 1-2K, 2-5W 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 UCN5804 Stepper motor translator/driver All diodes: 1N4002 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
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+V motor supply
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FIGURE 19.7 The basic wiring diagram for the UCN5804.
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CONTROLLING A STEPPER MOTOR 287
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TABLE 19.1 PARTS LIST FOR UCN5804 STEPPER MOTOR TRANSLATOR/DRIVER.
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IC1 R1, R2 D1 D4 M1 Misc
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Allegro UCN5804 Stepper Motor Translator IC 1 2K resistor, 2 5 watts 1N4002 diode Unipolar stepper motor SPDT switch, heat sinks for UCN5804 (as needed)
Step +5V +5V +5V +5V 13 13 11 CW CCW 12 9 7486 (1/4) 7486 (1/4) 16 K CLOCK 1 6 CLOCK J 7476 (1/2) 12 7 K 5 __ 10 Q Phase 4 Q To motor 11 Phase 3 10 8 14 4 J 7576 (1/2) __ 14 Q Phase 2 Q 15 Phase 1
7486 (1/4) Direction 2 3 1 4 7486 (1/4) 5 6 9
FIGURE 19.8 Using a pair of commonly available TTL ICs to construct your own stepper motor translator circuit.
TABLE 19.2 PARTS LIST FOR TTL STEPPER MOTOR TRANSLATOR
IC1 U2
7486 Quad Exclusive OR Gate IC 7476 Dual JK flip-flop IC
It is sometimes helpful to see a visual representation of the stepping sequence. Adding an LED and current-limiting resistor in parallel with the outputs provides just such a visual indication. See Fig. 19.11 for a wiring diagram (refer to the parts list in Table 19.5). Note the special wiring to the flip-flop outputs. This provides a better visual indication of the stepping action than hooking up the LEDs in the same order as the motor phases. Figure 19.12 shows two stepper motor translator boards. The small board controls up to two stepper motors and is designed using TTL chips. The LED option is used to provide a
288 WORKING WITH STEPPER MOTORS
Step +12V +12V +12V +12V 16 13 11 CW CCW 12 9 4070 (1/4) 4070 (1/4) 11 K CLOCK 13 3 CLOCK J 4027 (1/2) 5 7 4,7, 9,12 K 8 __ 2 Q Phase 4 Q To motor 1 Phase 3 8 10 14 10 J 4027 (1/2) __ 14 Q Phase 2 Q 15 Phase 1
4070 (1/4) Direction 2 3 1 4070 (1/4) 5 4 6 6
FIGURE 19.9 Using a pair of commonly available CMOS ICs to construct your own stepper motor translator circuit.
TABLE 19.3 PARTS LIST FOR CMOS STEPPER MOTOR TRANSLATOR.
IC1 IC2
4070 Quad Exclusive OR Gate IC 4037 Dual JK flip-flop IC
visual reference of the step sequence. The large board uses CMOS chips and can accommodate up to four motors. The boards were wire-wrapped; the driving transistors are placed on a separate board and heat sink.
TRIGGERING THE TRANSLATOR CIRCUITS
You need a square wave generator to provide the triggering pulses for the motors. You can use the 555 timer wired as an astable multivibrator, or make use of a control line in your computer or microcontroller. When using the 555, remember to add the 0.1 F capacitor across the power pins of the chip. The 555 puts a lot of noise into the power supply, and this noise regularly disturbs the counting logic in the Exclusive OR and flip-flop chips. If you are getting erratic results from your circuit, this is probably the cause.
USING BIPOLAR STEPPER MOTORS
As detailed earlier in the chapter, unipolar stepper motors contain four coils in which two of the coils are joined to make a center tap. This center tap is the common
CONTROLLING A STEPPER MOTOR 289
+5 or +12V
R1 Q1 D1 Stepper motor coils D2
R2 Q2
From flip-flop outputs R3 Q3 D3 Stepper motor coils D4 R4 Q4 Note: See text for values of diodes and transistors.
FIGURE 19.10 Add four transistors and resistors to provide a power output stage for the TTL or CMOS stepper motor translator circuits.
TABLE 19.4 PARTS LIST FOR STEPPER MOTOR DRIVER.
Q1 Q4
Under 1 amp draw per phase: TIP32 NPN transistor 1 to 3 amp draw per phase: TIP120 NPN Darlington transistor
R1 R4 D1 D4 Misc
1K resistor, 1 watt 1N4004 diode Heat sinks for transistors
connection for the motor. Bipolar stepper motors contain two coils, do not use a common connection, and are generally less expensive because they are easier to manufacture. A bipolar stepper motor has four external connection points. An old method for operating a bipolar stepper motor was to use relays to reverse the polarity of a DC voltage to two coils. This caused the motor to inch forward or backward, depending on the phasing sequence. Today, the more common method for operating a bipolar stepper motor is to use a specialty stepper motor translator, such as the SGS-Thompson L297D (the L297D can also be used to drive unipolar stepper motors). To add more current driving capacity to the L297D you can add a dual H-bridge driver, such as the L298N, which is available from
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