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Servos also vary by the amount of rotation they will perform for the 1 2 ms (or whatever) signal they are provided. Most standard servos are designed to rotate back and forth by 90 to 180 , given the full range of timing pulses. You ll find the majority of servos will be able to turn a full 180 , or very nearly so. Should you attempt to command a servo beyond its mechanical limits, the output shaft of the motor will hit an internal stop. This causes the gears of the servo to grind or chatter. If left this way for more than a few seconds the gears of the motor may be permanently damaged.
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FIGURE 20.4 A potentiometer is often used as a variable voltage divider. As the potentiometer turns, its wiper travels the length of a resistive element. The output of the potentiometer is a varying voltage, from 0 to the V of the circuit.
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Therefore, when experimenting with servomotors exercise care to avoid pushing them beyond their natural limits.
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Special-Purpose Servo Types and Sizes
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While the standard-sized servo is the one most commonly used in both robotics and radiocontrolled models, other R/C servo types, styles, and sizes exist as well.
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I Quarter-scale (or large-scale) servos are about twice the size of standard servos and are
significantly more powerful. Quarter-scale servos are designed to be used in large model airplanes, but they also make perfect power motors for a robot. I Mini-micro servos are about half the size (and smaller!) of standard servos and are designed to be used in tight spaces in a model airplane or car. They aren t as strong as standard servos, however. I Sail winch servos are designed with maximum strength in mind, and are primarily intended to move the jib and mainsail sheets on a model sailboat. I Landing-gear retraction servos are made to retract the landing gear of medium- and large-sized model airplanes. The design of the landing gear often requires the servo to guarantee at least 170 degree rotation, if not more (i.e., up to and exceeding 360 of motion). It is not uncommon for retraction servos to have a slimmer profile than the standard variety because of the limited space on model airplanes.
Gear Trains and Power Drives
The motor inside an R/C servo turns at several thousand RPMs. This is too fast to be used directly on model airplanes and cars, or on robots. All servos employ a gear train that reduces the output of the motor to the equivalent of about 50 100 RPM. Servo gears can be made of plastic, nylon, or metal (usually brass or aluminum). Metal gears last the longest, but they significantly raise the cost of the servo. Replacement gear sets are available for many servos, particularly the medium- to highpriced ones ($20 ). Should one or more gears fail, the servo can be disassembled and the gears replaced. In some cases, you can upgrade the plastic gears in a less expensive servo to higher-quality metal ones. Besides the drive gears, the output shaft of the servo receives the most wear and tear. On the least expensive servos this shaft is supported by a plastic bearing, which obviously can wear out very quickly if the servo is used heavily. Actually, this piece is not a bearing at all but a bushing, a sleeve or collar that supports the shaft against the casing of the servo. Metal bushings, typically made from lubricant-impregnated brass, last longer but add to the cost of the servo. The best (and most expensive) servos come equipped with ball bearings, which provide longest life. Ball bearing upgrades are available for some servo models.
TYPICAL SERVO SPECS 301
Typical Servo Specs
R/C servo motors enjoy some standardization. This sameness applies primarily to standardsized servos, which measure approximately 1.6 inches by 0.8 inch by 1.4 inches. For other servo types the size varies somewhat between makers, as these are designed for specialized tasks. Table 20.1 outlines typical specifications for several types of servos, including dimensions, weight, torque, and transit time. Of course, except for the size of standard servos, these specifications can vary between brand and model. A few of the terms used in the specs require extra discussion. As explained in 17, Choosing the Right Motor for the Job, the torque of the motor is the amount of force it exerts. The standard torque unit of measure for R/C servos is expressed in ounce-inches or the number of ounces the servo can lift when the weight is extended one inch from the shaft of the motor. Servos exhibit very high torque thanks to their speed reduction gear trains. The transit time (also called slew rate) is the approximate time it takes for the servo to rotate the shaft X (usually specified as 60 ). Small servos turn at about a quarter of a second per 60 , while larger servos tend to be a bit slower. The faster the transit time, the faster acting the servo will be. You can calculate equivalent RPM by multiplying the 60 transit time by 6 (to get full 360 rotation), then dividing the result into 60. For example, if a servo motor has a 60 transit time of 0.20 seconds, that s one revolution in 1.2 seconds (.2 6 1.2), or 50 RPM (60 / 1.2 50). Bear in mind that there are variations on the standard themes for all R/C servo classes. For example, standard servos are available in more expensive high-speed and high-torque versions. Servo manufacturers list the specifications for each model, so you can compare and make the best choice based on your particular needs. Many R/C servos are designed for use in special applications, and these applications can be adapted to robots. For example, a servo engineered to be used with a model sailboat will be water resistant and therefore useful on a robot that works in or around water.
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