vb.net barcode reader BUILD A POLAR COORDINATE ARM in Software

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398 BUILD A POLAR COORDINATE ARM
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FIGURE 26.7 b. Exploded view.
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BUILDING THE FOREARM
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FIGURE 26.8 Mounted elbow motor with chain sprocket and roller chain.
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FIGURE 26.9 The recommended mounting location for the drawer rail.
400 BUILD A POLAR COORDINATE ARM
FIGURE 26.10 The rail motor mounted in place.
The main design consideration is that the inside of the spool must be flush. Setscrews that bulge out will tangle with the cable. Cut a length of 1/16-inch-round steel aircraft cable to a length of approximately 18 inches. On both ends, clamp a 14-to-16-gauge wire lug using a pair of pliers or clamping tool (see Fig. 26.11). Secure one lug to the back end of the rail using 6/32 by 1/2-inch bolts and nuts (there may already be a hole for the hardware; if not, drill your own). Loop the cable once around the spool shaft and pull it tight to the other end. Remove as much slack as possible and make a mounting mark using the wire lug as a guide. Drill the hole and secure the lug using 6/32 by 1/2-inch bolts and 6/32 nuts. The assembly should look similar to Fig. 26.12. You may find that when you using metal or plastic gears or sprockets for the spool, the cable slops around and doesn t have much traction. One solution is to line the spool shaft with a couple of layers of masking tape. This approach has proved satisfactory for the prototype arm, even after several years of use. Alternatively, you can rough up the shaft using coarse sandpaper. The finished polar coordinate arm is shown in Fig. 26.13. Note that the shoulder is able to rotate continuously in a 360 circle and will keep on rotating indefinitely like a wheel. In actual use, the wires to the motors will prevent the shoulder from rotating more than one complete turn. When the forearm is completely extended, its reach is not quite to the ground (but it is to the arm s own base). This reach is just about right as as most gripper designs will add at least five or six inches to the length of the arm. The robot should be able to pick up small
BUILDING THE FOREARM
Cable eyelet
Cable eyelet
Cable
(Crimp-on)
FIGURE 26.11 A length of aircraft cable terminated with crimp-on electrical lugs. The 14-to-16-gauge wire seems to work with 1/16-inchdiameter steel cable. Motor Cable eyelet Cable Spindle Cable eyelet
Drawer rail Movement FIGURE 26.12 Threading detail for the drawer cable assembly.
FIGURE 26.13 The finished polar coordinate arm.
402 BUILD A POLAR COORDINATE ARM
objects placed a half-foot or more from the base. You can increase the reach by making the base thinner or by using a longer drawer rail.
Going Further
There is room to improve this basic design for a polar coordinate arm. One improvement you can make quite easily is to add crosspieces to support the turntable used for shoulder rotation. As it is, there is a great deal of side-to-side slop, and additional braces would largely eliminate it. Arm systems need a great deal of position control if the robot is to manipulate objects without direct intervention from you, its human master. See 25, Build a Revolute Coordinate Arm, for more complete details on adding position control to the joints of arms.
From Here
To learn more about
Using DC motors and shaft encoders Using stepper motors to drive robot parts Different robotic arm systems and assemblies Attaching hands to robotic arms Interfacing feedback sensors to computers
Read
18, Working with DC Motors 19, Working with Stepper Motors 24, An Overview of Arm Systems 27, Experimenting with Gripper Designs 29, Interfacing with Computers and and microcontrollers
EXPERIMENTING WITH GRIPPER DESIGNS
he arm systems detailed in s 25 through 26 aren t much good without hands. In the robotics world, hands are usually called grippers (also end effectors) because the word more closely describes their function. Few robotic hands can manipulate objects with the fine motor control of a human hand; they simply grasp or grip the object, hence the name gripper. Never sticklers for semantics, we ll use the terms hands and grippers interchangeably. Gripper designs are numerous, and no single design is ideal for all applications. Each gripper technique has unique advantages over the others, and you must fit the gripper to the application at, er, hand. This chapter outlines a number of useful gripper designs you can use for your robots. Most are fairly easy to build; some even make use of inexpensive plastic toys. The gripper designs encompass just the finger or grasping mechanisms. The last section of this chapter details how to add wrist rotation to any of the gripper designs.
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