vb.net barcode reader The Clapper in Software

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The Clapper
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The clapper gripper is a popular design, favored because of its easy construction and simple mechanics. You can build the clapper using metal, plastic, or wood, or a combination of all three. The details given in Table 27.1 are for a metal and plastic clapper.
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404 EXPERIMENTING WITH GRIPPER DESIGNS
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TABLE 27.1
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PARTS LIST FOR THE CLAPPER.
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2 2 1 1 8
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1 1/2-inch-by-2 1/2-inch-by-1/16-inch thick acrylic plastic sheet 1-inch-by-3/8-inch corner angle bracket 1 1/2-inch-by-1-inch brass or aluminum hinge Small 6- or 12-vdc spring-loaded solenoid 1/2-inch-by-6/32 stove bolts, nuts
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The clapper consists of a wrist joint (which, for the time being, we ll assume is permanently attached to the forearm of the robot). Connected to the wrist are two plastic plates. The bottom plate is secured to the wrist; the top plate is hinged. A small spring-loaded solenoid is positioned inside, between the two plates. When the solenoid is not activated, the spring pushes the two flaps out, and the gripper is open. When the solenoid is activated, the plunger pulls in, and the gripper closes. The amount of movement at the end of the gripper is minimal about 1/2 inch with most solenoids. However, that is enough for general gripping tasks. Cut two 1/16-inch-thick acrylic plastic pieces to 1 1/2 inches by 2 1/3 inches. Attach the lower flap to two 1-inch-by-3/8-inch corner angle brackets. Place the brackets approximately 1/8 inch from either side of the flap. Secure the pieces using 6/32 by 1/2-inch bolts and 6/32 nuts. Cut a 1 1/2-inch length of 1 1/2-inch-by-1/8-inch aluminum bar stock. Mount the two brackets to the bottom of the stock as shown in the figure. Attach the top flap to a 1 1/2-inch-by-1-inch (approximately) brass or aluminum miniature hinge. Drill out the holes in the hinge with a #28 drill to accept 6/32 bolts. Secure the hinge using 6/32 bolts and nuts. The choice of solenoid is important because it must be small enough to fit within the two flaps and it must have a flat bottom to facilitate mounting. It must also operate with the voltage used in your robot, usually 6 or 12 volts. Some solenoids have mounting flanges opposite the plunger. If yours does, use the flange to secure the solenoid to the bottom flap. Otherwise, mount the solenoid in the center of the bottom flap, approximately 1/2 inch from the back end (nearest the brackets), with a large glob of household cement. Let it stand to dry. Align the top flap over the solenoid. Make a mark at the point where the plunger contacts the plastic. Drill a hole just large enough for the plunger; you want a tight fit. Insert the plunger through the hole and push down so that the plunger starts to peek through. Align the top and bottom flaps so they are parallel to one another. Using the mounting holes in the hinges as a guide, mark corresponding holes in the aluminum bar. Drill holes and mount the hinge using 1/2-inch-by-6/32 bolts and nuts. The finished clapper should look like Fig. 27.1. Test the operation of the clapper by activating the solenoid. If the plunger works loose, apply some household cement to keep it in place. You may want to add a short piece of rubber weather stripping to the inside ends of the clappers so they can grasp objects easier. You can also use stick-on rubber feet squares, available at most hardware and electronics stores.
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TWO-PINCHER GRIPPER 405
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Hinge Top flap Spring
Bottom flap
Solenoid Aluminum flat stock
Angle bracket
Top view
FIGURE 27.1 The clapper gripper. a. Assembly detail; b. Top view.
Two-Pincher Gripper
The two-pincher gripper consists of two movable fingers, somewhat like the claw of a lobster. The steps for constructing a basic and two advanced models are described in this section.
BASIC MODEL
For ease of construction, the basic two-pincher gripper is made from extra Erector Set parts (the components from a similar construction kit toy may also be used). Cut two metal girders to 4 1/2 inches (since this is a standard Erector Set size, you may not have to do any cutting). Cut a length of angle girder to 3 1/2 inches, as shown in Fig. 27.2 (refer to the parts list in Table 27.2). Use 6/32 by 1/2-inch bolts and nuts to make two pivoting joints. Cut two 3-inch lengths and mount them (see Fig. 27.3). Nibble the corner off both pieces to prevent the two from touching one another. Nibble or cut through two or three holes on one end to make a slot. As illustrated in Fig. 27.4, use 6/32 by 1/2-inch bolts and nuts to make pivoting joints in the fingers. The basic gripper is finished. You can actuate it in a number of ways. One way is to mount a small eyelet between the two pivot joints on the angle girder. Thread two small cables or wire through the eyelet and attach the cables. Connect the other end of the cables to a solenoid or a motor shaft. Use a light compression spring to force the fingers apart when the solenoid or motor is not actuated.
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